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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (53)
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1

What is the fundamental unit of life?

Cells

2

What are the 6 characteristics of living things?

Highly organized
Homeostatic
Growth and development
Reproduce
Convert energy from one form to another
Respond to stimuli/movement

3

Who first described cells?

Robert Hooke

4

What is the cell theory?

All cells come from other cells

5

What can you usually see when using a light microscope?

Organelles

6

What can electron microscopy show you?

Cellular anatomy

7

How much can a light microscope magnify? And what is the resolution?

Magnify 1000X

Resolution off .2 micrometers

8

Describe fluorescent microscopy

Staining cells with fluorescent dyes

Filters isolate correct wavelength
Filters change what light passes through the specimen and into the eye.

9

Describe confocal microscopy

Uses laser as a light source and results in a 2D image- optical section but with a computer will form a 3D image

10

Describe transmission electron microscopy

Transmits beams of electrons and gives a magnification of 1 million and resolution of 2 nm

11

Describe scanning electron microscopes

Coats the specimen with heavy metal (gold)

The electrons scan the coated specimen and forms a 3D image

12

What are the 5 characteristics of the prokaryote?

Once celled organisms with no organelles

DNA in cytoplasm so no nucleus

Have cell membrane, ribosomes, and circular DNA

Many have cell walls

Some have flagella, pili or fimbrae, capsules

Reproduce quickly

13

What are the three shapes that bacteria are usually found?

Rod
Spherical
Spiral

14

What prokaryotes can live in extreme conditions such as glaciers, sulfur springs, cows stomachs, etc?

Archea

15

What re the charcteristics of mitochondria?

Powerhouse of the cell
Double Membraned organelle
Contain own circular DNA and divide like cells

16

What are the characteristics of chloroplasts?

Function of ATP synthesis with sunlight
Usually found in plants
Two membranes and stacked
Contain own DNA and divide like mitochondria

17

What is important in importing and exporting materials?

ER (enclosed by a folded embrace that is continuous with the nucleus membrane. And exports cell membrane components and other materials)

18

Smooth ER forms _______
Rough ER forms _____

Lipids
Proteins

19

Describe the Golgi apparatus

Stacks of flattened sacs involved in chemically packing materials

20

Describe lysosomes

Site of intracellular digestion

Breaks down food or waste

21

Describe peroxisomes

Vesicles contain hydrogen peroxide reactions and destroy the toxins produced in the cell

22

What component of the cell is not an organelle?

Cytosol

23

Describe vesicles and their function

Compartments for transporting between organelles. Typically bud to move to the next compartment.

Pinching off vesicles from one to another via endo and exocytosis

24

Describe cytosol

Cytoplasm WITHOUT organelles
More gel-like
Site of chemical reactions
Ribosomes

25

What are examples of cytoskeleton and what is it and its function?

Filaments anchored to the plasma membrane or near the nucleus. Important in support and shape. Manipulates internal and extracellular movement

Examples: Actin filaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments

26

________ is constantly changing

_________ assists in intracellular and extracellular movement

Cytoplasm

Cytoskeleton

27

What are the 3 things that make good model organisms?

Reproduce efficiently

Genetically manipulated in labs

Genetic properties have been preserved across species (charred genes across species)

28

What model organism is a model plant, can be grown inside in a controlled environment, produces thousands of off spring every 8 to 10 weeks an have a complete genome?

Wallcress

29

What are the four major families that function as building blocks, energy and structural support?

Sugars

Fatty acids

Amino acids

Nucleotides

30

What are examples of monosaccharides?

Glucose

Galactose

Fructose