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1

What is the purpose for a promoter?

Sequence for the binding of RNA polymerase

2

What are sites for binding of gene regulatory proteins

Regulatory DNA sequences

3

_______ __________ proteins bind to the regulatory DNA sequences and used to turn Genes on and off

Gene regulatory proteins

4

A bacterial operon contains what 3 components?

Promoter

Operator

Structural gene

5

What are the functions of the operator?

Regulatory DNA sequence that can serve either as a repressor or activator

6

______ _______ turns genes off when bound to a specific protein

Repressor operators

7

_____ ________ turned genes on when bound to specific protein

Activator operators

8

Operators can also be _____ _____ which code for mRNA

Structural genes

9

Transcriptional control in bacteria can use a repressor operator. What is an example?

Tryptophan operon

10

What does the Lac operon use to control transciption in bacteria?

Uses both activator CAP and a repressor operator

11

What is the function of the lac operon?

Makes enzymes to break down lactose

12

When glucose is present, the lac operon is _____

Inactive

The operon is off

13

If have glucose is present but no lactose then what is bound? Is the operon on or off?

Repressor

Operon is off

14

When there is not glucose and no lactose what is bound to the operon? Is the operon on or off?

CAP and repressor bound but operon is still off

15

When lactose is present but not glucose what is bound to the lac operon? Is the operon on or off at this point?

CAP bound
Operon turned on

16

What is located upstream from the structural gene and contains a TATA box in eukaryotes?

Promoter

17

_______ are regulatory DNA sequences that are used instead of operons in eukaryotes

Enhancers

18

How many structural genes are there per promoter?

One structural gene

19

Explain the initiation of transciption?

General transcription factors assemble with RNA polymerase at the TATA box and specific transcription factors bind to enhancers

20

Eukaryotic genes are regulated by _________

A combination of proteins

21

what coordinates expression of many different genes?

Single gene regulatory protein

22

Through cell differentiation we get a

Combination of regulatory proteins

23

What are the functions of membranes?

Lipid bilayer of molecules
Transport barrier
Contains transport channels
Flexible, expandable, repairable

24

Membranes function to
Receive _______
______ and ______ molecules
Capacity for _______ and _______

Receive information
Import and export of molecules
Capacity for movement and expansion

25

______ code for proteins that cells need, such as genes for glycolysis, ribosomal proteins

House keeping genes

26

_________ code for proteins needed for a particular cell type such as Hb for RBCs and Ab genes for B cells

Specialized genes

27

Genes can be controlled by what 5 processes?

Transcriptional control
RNA processing
RNA transport control
Translation control
Protein activity control

28

What are parts of transcriptional control of gene expression?

Regulatory DNA sequences (site for binding of gene regulatory proteins)
Gene regulatory proteins that bind to regulatory DNA sequences that are used to turn on and off genes

29

_______ _____ is made up of a promoter, operon, and structural genes

Bacterial operon

30

_______ _____ turn off genes when bound to a specific protein

Repressor operators