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Flashcards in introduction to anaemia Deck (77)
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1

what is anaemia?

reduced total red cell mass

2

what is a surrogate marker of anaemia?

hemoglobin concentration
haematocrit

3

what level of Hb is considered anaemia in adult males?

Hb<130g/L

4

what level of Hb is considered anaemia in Adult females?

Hb <120g/L

5

where does red cell production take place?

in the bone marrow

6

measuring hemoglobin concentration using a spectrophotometric method involves ---------- the red cells to create Hb solution
Stabilise the Hb molecules ---------
Measure the optical density (OD) at ----------

1. lyse
2. cyan-metHb
3. 540nm

7

what is Beer's law?

OD proportional to the concentration

8

wat is calculated against a known reference standard cyan-metHb concentration solution?

Hb concentration

9

Hb concentration is calculated against known reference of?

standard cyan-metHb concentration solution

10

how to measure hematocrit?

it is a ratio/percentage of the whole blood that is red cells if the sample was left to settle

11

how do modern machines measure hematocrit?

by adding the calculated volume of the red cells it counts

12

in what situations are Hb/Hct not good markers of anaemia?

Rapid bleeds
Haemadilution

13

wat are the two pathophysiological classifications of anaemia?

decreased production
increased loss or destruction of red cells

14

when there is decreased production what is the reticulocyte count?

low reticulocyte count because you are not producing enough cells

15

when there is increased loss or destruction of red cells the reticulocyte count is?

increased because you are producing more cells to compensate the loss

16

hypo proliferative problems?

reduced amount of erythropoiesis , amount of production is a problem

17

maturation abnormalities?

present but ineffective erythropoiesis

18

cytoplasmic defects?

impaired haemoglobinisation

19

nucleus defects?

impaired cell division

20

what two states cause in increased loss or destruction of red cells?

bleeding
haemolysis

21

what is the difference between bleeding and hemolysis?

in bleeding no bilirubin present

22

why is there bilirubin present in hemolysis?

increase of breakdown products

23

if MCV iss low (microcytic) consider problems with?

haemoglobinisation

24

if MCV is hight (macrocyclic) consider problems with?

maturation

25

if MCV is normal consider problems with?

hypo proliferation

26

where is HB synthesized?

cytoplasm

27

to make Hb you need?

globins
Haem : porphyrin ring, Iron (Fe2+)

28

causes of microcytic anaemia?

commonest iron deficiency (low body iron)

29

what is the second commonest cause of microcytic anaemia?

thalassemia which is when there is a globin deficiency

30

shortage of globins and ham result in?

small red cells with a los Hb content