Flashcards in Structure and function of normal red blood cells Deck (48)
red blood cells have a many -------------- to keep the ion concentrations right
sodium potassium pumps help
keep water out
what is the structure of hemoglobin?
2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
hemoglobin is a ------------------- protein
what is the heme group?
fe2+ and flat porphyrin ring
how many heme groups are there?
one heme per subgroup
one oxygen molecule binds to
what are the functions of haemoglobin?
deliver oxygen to tissues
act as a buffer for H+
where is the hypoxia sensor located?
in the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys
erythropoietin is produced in the?
erythropoietin stimulates ------------ to undergo hyperplasia?
the erythron is located in the?
what are the raw materials required to make red blood cells?
iron, folate and B12
what type of response is red cell production?
where does red cell destruction normally take place?
spleen (and liver)
what is the average life-span of red blood cells
which cells take out aged red cells?
the globe chains are recycled to?
what is the heme group broken down to?
iron and bilirubin
bilirubin is taken to?
liver and conjugated
conjugated bilirubin is present in?
bile (colors faeces and urine)
lots of free radicals are generated from?
the oxygen present around the red cell
how can freee radicals cause challenges for red cells?
they oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+
what is the glycolysis pathway called?
what is sacrificed to prevent oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+
what is Fe3+ called?
what prevents oxygen from becoming superoxide?
what does superoxide cause?
interacts with proteins, DNA etc and damages their structure
what converts hydrogen peroxide to water?