Structure and function of normal red blood cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structure and function of normal red blood cells Deck (48)
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1

red blood cells have a many -------------- to keep the ion concentrations right

sodium-potassium pumps

2

sodium potassium pumps help

keep water out

3

what is the structure of hemoglobin?

2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains

4

hemoglobin is a ------------------- protein

tetrameric globular

5

what is the heme group?

fe2+ and flat porphyrin ring

6

how many heme groups are there?

one heme per subgroup

7

one oxygen molecule binds to

one Fe2+

8

what are the functions of haemoglobin?

deliver oxygen to tissues
act as a buffer for H+
CO2 transportation

9

where is the hypoxia sensor located?

in the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys

10

erythropoietin is produced in the?

kidneys

11

erythropoietin stimulates ------------ to undergo hyperplasia?

erythron

12

the erythron is located in the?

bone marrow

13

what are the raw materials required to make red blood cells?

iron, folate and B12

14

what type of response is red cell production?

negative feedback

15

where does red cell destruction normally take place?

spleen (and liver)

16

what is the average life-span of red blood cells

120 days

17

which cells take out aged red cells?

macrophages

18

the globe chains are recycled to?

amino acids

19

what is the heme group broken down to?

iron and bilirubin

20

bilirubin is taken to?

liver and conjugated

21

conjugated bilirubin is present in?

bile (colors faeces and urine)

22

lots of free radicals are generated from?

the oxygen present around the red cell

23

how can freee radicals cause challenges for red cells?

they oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+
damage proteins

24

what is the glycolysis pathway called?

embed-meyerhof pathway

25

what is sacrificed to prevent oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+

NADH

26

what is Fe3+ called?

metHB

27

what prevents oxygen from becoming superoxide?

superoxidase dismutase

28

what does superoxide cause?

interacts with proteins, DNA etc and damages their structure

29

what converts hydrogen peroxide to water?

peroxidase catalase

30

superoxide is converted to?

hydrogen peroxide