Flashcards in Introduction to Infectious Diseases Deck (37):
What is the relationship between Humans and bacteria? (What changes and how)
Humans change, bacteria does not. Overcrowding, trade practices, travel, domestication of animals and sexual practices
What are some old diseases and why are they a current concern?
Tuberculosis- multi-resistant and extensively resistant strains
Syphilis- CDC named Indianapolis syphilis capitol of the nation
Black Plague- Still present in southwester U.S.
Influenza- Bird and swine flu
Anthrax, smallpox, etc - Biological warfare
Statistics for disease mortality
Declines overal since more clean but not gone. Could spike up again due to antibiotic misuse/ resistance.
What is the leading cause of death and what percentage of deaths are due to this?
Infectious diseases, 16%
What are some relatively new infectious diseases?
AIDS, Legionaires Disease, Lyme disease, Toxic Shock (Staph), Ebola SARS, West nile, Swine flu, Hepatitis B and C, Hanta Fever (mouse drippings) Resistant and Multiresistant
What are chronic disease and there associated organism?
Helicobacter pylori - Peptic ulcers
Human Papillomavirus - Cervical cancer, throat cancer
Hepatitis B and C- Liver carcinoma
Correlia Burgdorferi - Chronic Lyme disease
West Nile Virus - Pliomyelitis-like paralysis
What are the three elements involved in the triad of infectious diseases?
Infectious agent, Host and Environment
What are some bacteria virulence factors?
certain antigens (m-protein etc)
Toxins (exotoxins, endotoxins)
What are some host resistance factors?
Physical Barriers, usual flora, cleansing mechanisms phagocytosis/immune response
What is a immunodeficient host susceptible to that a normal person is not?
What are some environmental factors?
Poverty, deforestation, natural disasters, Population migration and antibiotics or immunosuppressive therapy.
What are the characteristics of exotoxins?
Protein, gram pos and neg bacteria, Heat liable, EXO CAN HAVE ANTITOXIN
What are the characteristics of Endotoxins?
Lipopolysaccharides (part of cell wall), Primarily gram neg, heat stable, produce fever shock DIC, NO ANTITOXINS produced against endotoxins
What are just resistance factors and what is the bodies first line of defense?
Physical barriers (first line), Usual Flora, cleansing mechanisms, immune
What types of pathogens affect those who are immunocompromised?
What are the various routes of transmission?
Air, ingestion, Close contact, cuts and bites, arthrodes (like a tick) and zoonoses (contact with animals and/or their products)
What areas of usual flora?
Skin, mouth, upper respiratory, intestines and vagina.
What areas are normally sterile?
Blood, CSF, Joint fluids, Organs and tissues not exposed to outside, Upper urinary and general tracts, Lower respiratory
What are commensals?
What organisms are pathogenic in sterile areas?
What are ways of prevention?
Handwashing, Vaccines, sanitation, animal/vector control and education.
What is an infection with sudden onset and usually shorter duration?
What is a host harboring a pathogen without displaying symptoms?
What is a long lasting infection?
What is the CDC and where is it?
Centers for Disease control in Atlanta, GA
What is pollution of a body site with microorganisms NOT causing disease?
What is called with one organism benefits with no harm to the other?
What is the spread of infections to distant sites?
What is an infection from ones own flora
What is an agent acquired from outside of self?
What is the number of cases of disease?
What is the number of deaths?
What is a hospital aquired infection?
What is an organism that benefits at the others expense?
What is something that is virulent
What is the ability to cause disease?