Introduction to Pharmacology (L1&2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Pharmacology (L1&2) Deck (27)
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1

What is pharmacology?

The study of drug action on animals, organs, tissues and cells

2

What is an example of an exogenous pharmacon used pharmacologically?

Paracetamol, Morphine, aspirin

3

What are 4 common pharmacological targets?

Receptors, Enzymes, Transporters, Ion channels

4

Give an example of a typical chemical bond between a receptor and its target

Dipole-dipole, hydrogen bond, van der Waals

5

What is the difference between specific and non-specific drugs?

Specific drugs bind to specific targets where as non-specific do not effect any receptor and have physiochemical characteristics

6

What are drugs usual targets?

Enzymes, ion channels, mRNA, receptors

7

What is pharmacokinetics?

Movement of a drug into, through and out of a body
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination
mADME

8

What is a Pharmacokinetics ideal drug property?

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination

9

What is LD50?

A dosage of a drug which kills half the subjects

10

What is the therapeutic index?

The ratio of the fatal dose/effective dose

11

What therapeutic index is wanted?

Higher values

12

What is a physiochemical property?

Ability of a compound to cause a therapeutic or pharmacological effect due to physical and chemical propeties- solubility, bonding

13

What are 4 types of proteins that drugs typically bind to?

Receptors, Ion channels, transporters, enzymes

14

What is meant by a receptor?

Proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer which interact with certain molecules

15

What are 2 examples of receptors?

Cannaboids- Methananamide and JW-133

Histamine-
mepyramine and ranitidine

Opioid Receptors

16

What is meant by agonist and antagonist

Agonist- ligand or drug that binds to receptor and causes an effect
Antagonist- Binds to receptor and doesn't give and effect

17

What is meant by agonist and antagonist

Agonist- Binds to receptor causing a conformational change that activates a responce in target cell
Antagonist- Binds to receptor but initiates no response

18

What is a drug/ligand?

A molecule that binds to. specific receptor- for that receptor

19

What is the law of mass action?

That the higher the amount of either receptor and drugs or drug-receptor complex causes the increase of the other

20

What are the three processes of a typical drug mechanism?

Reception, transduction, response

21

Define affinity

The ability of a drug to bind to its target protein

22

Explain what a second messenger is

A molecule that relays a signal from receptor to response

23

Give two examples of second messengers

Cyclic AMP, Ca2+

24

What are the three processes of a typical drug mechanism?

Reception, transduction-second messengers, response

25

How is a signal amplified?

Cascade effect

26

Why is the cascade effect useful?

A small amount of ligand can have a large effect

27

What are the different type of receptors?

Cell surface
Intracellular