Islamic Empires: Ottomans, Mughals, Safavid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Islamic Empires: Ottomans, Mughals, Safavid Deck (23):
1

What version of Islam did Ottomans practice

The Ottoman Empire was a Sunni Islamic state founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

2

Who was the founder of the Ottoman Empire ?

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I.

3

Who conquered Constantinople ?

As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire.

4

Why was Suleiman the Magnificent so magnificent

1) Uniform Law Code
2) Patron of Arts- Suleiman’s Mosque
3) Remodels Dome of Rock in Jerusalem
4) Defeats Safavids & Shi’ite in Iran and Iraq

5

What was significance of Ottoman Janissaries ?

1) Elite branch of Ottoman army
2) Recruited thru Devshirme system
3) Legally Slaves, given extensive schooling…
4) Owe their allegiance only to the Sultan
5) By the late 1400’s they have great political power
6) By 1550 they have the power to depose Sultans

6

What happened at the battle of Lepanto ?

The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, led by Spain decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece.

The victory of the Holy League prevented the Ottoman Empire from expanding further along the European side of the Mediterranean.

Lepanto was the last major naval battle in the Mediterranean fought entirely between galleys and has been assigned great symbolic and historical importance by several historians.[9][10][11]

7

Who was founder of the Mughal Dynasty ?

Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur after defeating Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526 founded the Mughal Empire in India.

8

Who expands the empire and promotes religous tolerance ?

Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, known popularly as Akbar ], literally "the great"; 15 October 1542[a]– 27 October 1605), also known as Akbar the Great or Akbar I,[5][6] was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death.

He was the third and one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. In order to preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.

9

What was the purpose of building the Taj Mahal ?

Mughal Shah Juhan's third wife died during childbirth of his fourteenth child, so he built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife. It was also part of her last wish to have a beautiful tomb. Her name was Mumtaz Mahal.

10

Who was the Mughal ruler who persecuted the Hindus in India ?

Aurangzeb (1658-1707) was the last great ruler of the empire. His rule began well, and he brought the Muslim Deccan kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda under Mughal control. He was intolerant of other religions, however, and persecuted the Hindus

11

What modern day country is the Safavid dynasty in ?

Iran

12

What form of Islam did the Safavid practice ?

Shi'a

Begin as a group of Sufi Mystics, shrine at Ardabil near the Caspian Sea.

13

What was the significance of Battle of Chaldiran ?

The Battle of Chaldiran or Chaldoran (Persian: چالدران‎; Turkish: Çaldıran) occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.

1) Crushing defeat for the Safavid

2) Isolates Shi’a Islam to present day Iran & Iraq

3) Culturally- Safavid begin to use Persian instead of Turkish language.

14

What was the Safavid capital

First, Tabriz later Isfahan--1) Safavid Capital under Abbas the Great
2) Capital had: 2 story shops, Mosques, government offices, Splendid Mosques….. several Colleges

15

Who is Sail al- Din

aka
(Safi al-Din)

-Safavid Sufi leader

1) Namesake for the Safavid Empire

2) Begins Militant campaign to purify and reform Islam

3) Followers are called red heads for the color of their headgear.

16

Who is Ismail ?

The Safavid dynasty was founded about 1501 by Shāh Ismāil I

1) Conquers city of Tabriz in 1501

2) Proclaimed the first Shah or Emperor.

3) Conquer Persia and drive out the Ozbegs

17

Who was Shah Abbas

1) Extends Safavid Empire to its greatest size
2) Uses youths captured in Russia… similar to Janissaries of Ottomans

3) Builds a standing army of 40k Soldiers

4) Makes empire a major center of International Trade
Europe Covets Persian Rugs

18

What is Dervishme ?

1) Process of forcibly recruiting Christian males from the Balkans for enlistment in the Janissary Corps
Or

To be used as Government administrators.

19

What is Vizier ?

Head of the Ottoman Bureaucracy…. Often held more real power than the Sultan

20

What led to Ottoman Decline ?



1) Government Corruption leads to an overtaxed Peasantry...
2) Princes kept in the seclusion of the Harems…. Produces weak and incapable rulers.

21

What was Safavid Society ?


1) Goal was to convert the entire population to Shi’a Islam

2) Teaching in Mosque schools was planned and directed by state officials.

3) All other religions were pressured to convert.

Mullahs: Agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert population

22

What was Safavid trade and commerce like ?


1) Builds infrastructure with roads, rest houses
2) Secures the safety of travelers within Empire
3) Encouraged trade with Indian and China… as well as Portuguese and Dutch and English

Led by Shah Abbas

23

What led to Safavid decline ?

1) Abbas feared being usurped by his sons & advisors
2) Had any true potential successors killed or blinded
3) Weak rulers, and the influence of the Harem destroys the quality of leadership