Flashcards in Rome Deck (88)
What is a republic ?
A kind of government where the power rests with the people who elect the leaders
What are Patricians ?
Wealthy landowners who early on held the most power in Rome . Made up the Senate, i.e. the "300"
What are Plebeians ?
The commoners of the early Republic. They were barred from the most important positions. AKA the "Tribal Assembly"
What is the Tribune ?
The Plebeian's own assembly in which they elected their own representatives. They had veto power in the Senate. They protected the rights of the Plebes from unfair acts of the Patrician officials
What is the Consul ?
A "king" with limited authority
What is the Senate ?
The aristocratic branch of Rome's government/. 300 members from the upper class
What is a dictator ?
A leader with absolute power. Chosen by consul; elected by Senate. Chosen in times of emergency only for 6 months.
What is the legion ?
Large military units consisting of 5,000 infantry units and a group of cavalry. 5,000 soldiers=Legion; 50 soldiers=century
What were the Punic Wars ?
The long war between Rome and Carthage. 3 wars fought for the control of the Mediterranean. 1st in Sicily; 2nd Hannibal's campaign; 3rd Scipio destroys Carthage.
What did the Romans call the Mediterranean ?
Mare Nostrum or "Our Sea"
What was the law of the 12 Tables ?
Written law codes that prevented patricians from "interpreting" the law in their favor. Equality under law for the Plebes
Who made up the 1st Triumverate ?
Caesar (Conqueror of Gaul)
Crassus (Consul, the richest man in Rome
Pompey (Consul, General, Kicked Pirates off Coast)
Who were the 2 disciples of Sulla and Consuls in 70 BCE ?
Pompey and Crassus
How did Pompey and Cassius immediately gain the support of the people ?
Repealed Sulla's constitution and re-established Triumvirate
Tell me about Julius Caesar...
Nephew of Marius; Conquered Gaul; forced the Senate to pass land reforms (similar to reforms of Gracchi Brothers); purchased state lands to give to soldiers
What happened when Crassus died ?
He died fighting the Parthians in 53 BCE. Pompey became the sole Consul. Caesar became most powerful General in the Empire. Pompey's supporters tried to prevent Caesar from campaigning for Consul in 49 BCE.
What happened when Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE ?
Ignited Civil War
What did Pompey and Senators do when Caesar and his legion crossed the Rubicon ?
They fled and Caesar began systematically chasing down Pompey. Caesar occupied Spain with his forces.
What happened at the Battle of Pharsalus ?
Caesar defeated Pompey's army. Pompey flees to Egypt.
What happened to Pompey in Egypt ?
He was assassinated on the orders of the Egyptian king, Ptolemy.
What is the significance of the 1st Triumvirate ?
It marked the end of the Roman Republic
What did Julius Caesar do following defeat of Pompey and his supporters ?
He carried out wide ranging social and legal reforms. He became dictator for life in 44 BC.
What happened on 15 March 44 BC ?
A group of Senators who still held Republican ideals stabbed him to death on the way to the Senate. Also known as the Ides of March
Who was Marc Antony ?
One of Caesar's generals who called for the banishment of his murderers, who then fled from Rome
Who made up the 2nd Triumvirate ?
Octavian (19 year old grand nephew of Caesar), Marc Antony and the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
What happended following the defeat of the republicans by the 2nd triumvirate in 42 BC ?
They divided the provinces among themselves: Antony, the East; Octavian, Italy and the West and Lepidus, North Africa
What happened when Marc Antony hooked up with Cleopatra ?
Octavian used it as an excuse to attack Egypt--Antony was married to Octavian's sister. Octavian convinced the Senate tat Antony was trying to separate the East from the rest of the Empire.
What happened at Actium in 31 BC ?
Agrippa destroyed the fleets of Antony and Cleopatra.
What happened following Octavian's occupation of Egypt in 30 BC ?
The Roman Empire was unified for the first time under one man. The Senate bestowed upon Octavian the title of Princeps or 1st citizen.