Flashcards in Rome Deck (88):
What is a republic ?
A kind of government where the power rests with the people who elect the leaders
What are Patricians ?
Wealthy landowners who early on held the most power in Rome . Made up the Senate, i.e. the "300"
What are Plebeians ?
The commoners of the early Republic. They were barred from the most important positions. AKA the "Tribal Assembly"
What is the Tribune ?
The Plebeian's own assembly in which they elected their own representatives. They had veto power in the Senate. They protected the rights of the Plebes from unfair acts of the Patrician officials
What is the Consul ?
A "king" with limited authority
What is the Senate ?
The aristocratic branch of Rome's government/. 300 members from the upper class
What is a dictator ?
A leader with absolute power. Chosen by consul; elected by Senate. Chosen in times of emergency only for 6 months.
What is the legion ?
Large military units consisting of 5,000 infantry units and a group of cavalry. 5,000 soldiers=Legion; 50 soldiers=century
What were the Punic Wars ?
The long war between Rome and Carthage. 3 wars fought for the control of the Mediterranean. 1st in Sicily; 2nd Hannibal's campaign; 3rd Scipio destroys Carthage.
What did the Romans call the Mediterranean ?
Mare Nostrum or "Our Sea"
What was the law of the 12 Tables ?
Written law codes that prevented patricians from "interpreting" the law in their favor. Equality under law for the Plebes
Who made up the 1st Triumverate ?
Caesar (Conqueror of Gaul)
Crassus (Consul, the richest man in Rome
Pompey (Consul, General, Kicked Pirates off Coast)
Who were the 2 disciples of Sulla and Consuls in 70 BCE ?
Pompey and Crassus
How did Pompey and Cassius immediately gain the support of the people ?
Repealed Sulla's constitution and re-established Triumvirate
Tell me about Julius Caesar...
Nephew of Marius; Conquered Gaul; forced the Senate to pass land reforms (similar to reforms of Gracchi Brothers); purchased state lands to give to soldiers
What happened when Crassus died ?
He died fighting the Parthians in 53 BCE. Pompey became the sole Consul. Caesar became most powerful General in the Empire. Pompey's supporters tried to prevent Caesar from campaigning for Consul in 49 BCE.
What happened when Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE ?
Ignited Civil War
What did Pompey and Senators do when Caesar and his legion crossed the Rubicon ?
They fled and Caesar began systematically chasing down Pompey. Caesar occupied Spain with his forces.
What happened at the Battle of Pharsalus ?
Caesar defeated Pompey's army. Pompey flees to Egypt.
What happened to Pompey in Egypt ?
He was assassinated on the orders of the Egyptian king, Ptolemy.
What is the significance of the 1st Triumvirate ?
It marked the end of the Roman Republic
What did Julius Caesar do following defeat of Pompey and his supporters ?
He carried out wide ranging social and legal reforms. He became dictator for life in 44 BC.
What happened on 15 March 44 BC ?
A group of Senators who still held Republican ideals stabbed him to death on the way to the Senate. Also known as the Ides of March
Who was Marc Antony ?
One of Caesar's generals who called for the banishment of his murderers, who then fled from Rome
Who made up the 2nd Triumvirate ?
Octavian (19 year old grand nephew of Caesar), Marc Antony and the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
What happended following the defeat of the republicans by the 2nd triumvirate in 42 BC ?
They divided the provinces among themselves: Antony, the East; Octavian, Italy and the West and Lepidus, North Africa
What happened when Marc Antony hooked up with Cleopatra ?
Octavian used it as an excuse to attack Egypt--Antony was married to Octavian's sister. Octavian convinced the Senate tat Antony was trying to separate the East from the rest of the Empire.
What happened at Actium in 31 BC ?
Agrippa destroyed the fleets of Antony and Cleopatra.
What happened following Octavian's occupation of Egypt in 30 BC ?
The Roman Empire was unified for the first time under one man. The Senate bestowed upon Octavian the title of Princeps or 1st citizen.
Who were the ancestors of the Romans ?
What 2 brothers are responsible for the mythological founding of the Roman Empire ?
Romulus and Remus
Explain how the Romans treated their conquered foes and how that contributed to the growth of the Empire ?
Free males in the conquered territories were given Roman citizenship. Guaranteed loyalty but there were pros and cons of citizenship
How did Rome's imperialist foreign policy negatively impact their society ?
Foreign expansion undercut doemstic economy and widened the wealth gap.
Who were the 2 patricians who tried to pass land reforms ?
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus.
What happened to the Gracchi brothers ?
Assassinated by the Senate
Why did the common people of Rome start to follow the lead of the Generals ?
Senate turned their backs on the people when given the chance to help them. The generals gave them purpose and land
What were the major reforms enacted by Octavian ?
Ocativan, aka Augustus Caesar, Set up a Civil Service employing Plebeians (tax collecting, grain supply, postal system) in the day to day operations of the empore.
Established the denarius as common currency; Established the "Pax Augusta"; ;i.e. the end of all party conflicts; Established the "Roman Peace", i.e. Rome's golden age--200 years of peace and stability.
He was pro militay--established 28 legions (gave the soldiers land in exchange for service.. Maintained good working relationship with Senate.
What were Caesars major reforms ?
Granted citizenship to persons in provinces.
Expanded the Senate and added more friends and supporters;
Used consturction of public works to create jobs for the poor
Provided land for farmers in newly conquered territory
What is SPQR ?
Senatus Populusque Romanus or The Senate and People of Rome
What is Imperialism ?
When a country expands its power thru diplomacy or war
What led to the Punic Wars ?
Increasing conflict ofver the trade routes in the Mediterranean
Who were the Carthaginians ?
Traced roots to the Phonecians. Dominant power in the Mediterranean. Powerful Navy and seafaring abilities.
What was the Roman's first imperial war ?
1st Punic War
How long did the 1st Punic War last ?
How did the Romans finally win the first Punic War ?
Changed the rules of naval warfare....hooked enemy ships and then boarded with soldiers. In effect converted naval warfare into mini land battles
Who was Hannibal ?
Carthaginian general who invaded Italy from the North via the Alps.
What was the battle of Cannae ?
Decisive Carthage victory in the 2nd Punic war
What happened in the 3rd Punic War ?
War of vengenance against Carthage. City of Carthage was razed and salt poured into ground to prevent farming
Whose death led to the beginning of the fall of the Empire ?
Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE
3 reasons for decline of Rome's economy ?
Hostile Tribes and pirates; inflation; unusable farmland
How was inflation caused in Romes's Currency
Rome lacked new sources for Gold and Silver
What led to the decline of Rome's agricultural production ?
Overworked farmland and land destroyed by war
How did the extension of citizenship to all the provinces affect the Roman army ?
Character and quality of the Roman soldier declined
How did the use of mercenaries weaken the army ?
They werent loyal so wouldnt fight as well. Loyal to their commanders not to Rome itself.
What happened to the feelings of the average citizens during this period ?
Their loyalty declined as well. Poor conditions caused them to lose sense of patriotinsm and became indifferent to the empire;s fat
Who was Diocletian ?
Became emperor in 284. Strong general, limited personal freedoms, but restored order. Set price controls. Portrayed himself as a god.
What did Diocletian do to the empire in order to better control it ?
Split empire into Greek speaking East and Latin speaking west. He ruled the East and appointed a co leader for the West
Why did Diocletian retire ?
What happened when Diocletian retired ?
Civil war broke out.
Who eventually succeeded Diocletian ?
What was the biggest change Constantine made ?
Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium (later called Constantinople
Why was the location of Byzantium strategic ?
Located on the Bosphorus Strait, important location for trade and defence.
What was the Edict of Milan ?
Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 and legalized and encouraged the practice of Christianity
How do the Huns indirectly cause the fall of the Empire ?
They invaded the Germanic tribes, which in turn invaded the Rome to save themsleves
Which tribe eventually conquered the Western Roman Empire ?
The Visigoths, a germanic tribe from the North
To whom did the Eastern Empire eventually fall to ?
The Ottoman Turks
How was the rule of Octavian "Augustus" Caesar similar to that of Pericles in Athens ?
They both ruled during the Golden Age of their respective countries
How big was the size of the Empire at it biggest ?
Stretched from England to the Persian Gulf
What were some of the architectural/infrastructual accomplishments ?
Theaters, collesiums, acquducts, indoor toilets
Why were Generals ble of usurping power from the Roman Government
They had the loyalty of their soldiers
Who provided the security for the everyday citizens during the Pax Romana ?
How many people could fit into the Coliseum ?
How is the wealth gap evident in the difference of living conditions for the rich and poor ?
Wealthy lived in villas and poor lived in crowded tenaments
Who led a famous slave revolt in 73 BCE ?
How did battles between rival emperors contribute tot the decline of border security ?
It led to wasted resources
How did the geography of the eastern roman empire contribute to its financial prosperity ?
Centrally located for trade and defence
What river in Italy does civilization develop around ?
What does archeologic evidence tell us about the lives of the Etruscans ?
Lives filled with pleasure--chariot races, athletic contests, lively art
How is the mythological founding of Rome connected to Greek mythology ?
Aeneas, a greek hero, founded rome
How did General Marius come into power ?
Was appointed by the Senate to beat external enemies of the Roman Republic---namely Germanic Tribes to the North
What reforms did Marius implement
Gave land to military in conqurered provinces; gave soldiers occupation, land and a place to settle in their old age. Army became a tool of the Generals not the Senate
Who was known as Felix the Fortunate ?
Who were the two opposing generals in the Roman Civil War
Sulla and Marius
What reforms did Sulla implement ?
Strentthen the Senate; Weakens the Tribunes; Leaves a standing army of 120,000 in Rome
What are some historical precedents from the Civil War ?
Generals hold more popular support and true power than does the Senate
What is a Junta ?
Military overthrow of government
What happended to Sulla ?
Retired to the countryside and died peacefully