Flashcards in Islamic ethics- life and death Deck (46):
'Nor can a soul die...'
'... except by allahs leave' -Qur'an
What are the two angels who question you when buried?
Munkir and Nakir
What are the 5 things Munkir and Nakir ask?
Who is your God?
What is your religion?
Who is your prophet?
What is you guide?
What happens if you don't answer the five question of death?
You will be punished for being a non-believer.
Who is the angel of death and where does he send your souls?
Azrail sends your soul to Al-Barzakh
'It is he (Allah) who...'
'...granteth death and life' -Quar'an
'Kill not your children...'
'...for the fear of want'- Qur'an
What are the key beliefs of abortion?
and that humans do not have the right to go against Allahs creative power.
-Life begins at ensoulment
What do Muslims further believe if they believe that abortion is acceptable to a certain extent?
-they have up until 17 weeks (ensoulment)
- it shouldn't take after 6 weeks because the first three stages occur after the first 40 days
What happens in ensoulment?
40 days of the seed being planted
40 days of a clot of blood
40 days of a morsel flesh
Ensoulment - where the angel breaths life
What are the general Muslim beliefs about contraception?
Many Muslims are happy for the couple to control their fertilities as long as they eventually have a family.
What did Muhammed have to say about contraception?
He was aware of contraception and birth control and he did not condemn contraception.
What contraceptives do Muslims disapprove of and why?
the 'morning after pill' as it is preventing potential for human life and ensoulment
sterilisation as it is going against Allahs will to have children.
What are the three main artificial inseminations?
Fertility (in glass)
'Those who abstain from sex, except with those joined to them in marriage bond... but those whose desires...'
'...exceeds those limits are transgressors' -Qur'an
'Those who abstain from sex, except those joined to them in marriage bond...'
'...but those whose desires exceed those limits are transgressors'
'Those who abstain from sex,..'
'...except those joined to them in marriage bond... but those who desires exceed those limits are transgressors'- Qur'an
Why do some Muslims disagree with artificial insemination?
They believe that Allah bestows the child bearing gift and if you do not have this gift you should accept your misfortune as it was clearly Allahs will to continue living your life. If you go against this it is against Allahs will.
Also the third party assistance could be considered as zina.
Why do some Muslims agree with artificial insemination?
They believe that Allah is happy for his creative process to be achieved through fertility technology that he inspired people to have the knowledge to develop.
Why could artificial insemination of husband be a tricky subject for Muslims?
Because AIH involves masturbation. Some believe it is wrong as they could be considered as 'transgressors'. Others believe it is acceptable as it is inside the marriage bond so the masturbation is aimed to have a child rather than to fulfil desires.
Why is AID more complex than AIH?
Many Muslims believe that it breaks islamic code because:
The donor is a stranger
Inserting a mans sperm who is outside the marriage bond could be considered as zina
Allows unmarried women to bring up children on their own
The childs well being may be affected as they do not have the same genetics as their physical fathers they feel like somethings missing.
What are the rules of IVF?
Those who agree with IVF stress that the conception must be between a husbands sperm and a woman eggs. If a third party is involved then it could be considered as zina and could interrupt the sanctity of marriage.
What are the rules of surrogacy?
Muslims are against surrogacy because:
-The 'second woman' involvement is considered as zina
-The accuracy of the family relationship is affected when the biological mother is different to the mother who brought the child up.
-This could cause confusion over identity of the child- causing issues with inheritance
e.g. Abraham, Hagar and Sarah.
What is reproductive cloning?
To create a copy of a life.
It is globally agreed to be illegal.
what are Muslims beliefs on reproductive cloning?
Some believe that Allah has given us this knowledge and it would be wrong not to use it
Others believe that it interferes with Allah's creative powers which can be considered as shirk.
What is therapeutic cloning?
To help treat a range of diseases by taking DNA out of an embryo and replaced with a DNA from another individual to generate a stem cell.
What are Muslims concerned beliefs on therapeutic cloning?
Muslims are concerned about creating and modifying embryos for such a purpose because it may be taking a life which is portraying Allah's duty upon themselves.
Therefore they forbid the creation of embryos for this purpose but allow it if the embryos ares spares from IVF treatment.
What is a designer baby?
The genetically modify a human embryo. Specifically to select genes like hair colour and maybe even gender by the parents.
What are Muslims negative beliefs on therapeutic cloning?
Many Muslims believe that it is unacceptable because it doesn't benefit mankind.
It also removes creative power of Allah and therefore goes against Allah's decisions and wishes.
What is somatic cell therapy?
Transfers a section of DNA to any cell of the body that doesn't produce sperm/ egg. The effects of gene therapy will not be passed onto the patients children.
What are Muslims beliefs on somatic cell therapy?
Many believe that as long as it is scientifically advances result as improvement of humans lives, they're welcome to provide the methods to the extent of Muslims religious ethical guidelines.
So it is therefore governed by religious and ethical guidelines.
What are the legal rules of Saviour Siblings
-The use of stem cells to treat a disease but must only be used from the umbilical cord.
-The sibling must be conceived through IVF to check that the child doesn't also have the disease.
-The first siblings disease must be severe
-All other treatments must've been tried first
What do Muslims believe about Saviour Siblings?
Some believe it is acceptable as it is for good. However, parents must love both children equally.
a 'good death'- a patient gives consent and seeks for assistance in ending their life.
What is voluntary euthanasia?
Someone asking to die and seeks assistance
What is active euthanasia?
Something deliberately done to end a patients life- either medical injection or a specific fluid to drink.
What is passive euthanasia?
Something could be done to prolong life but isn't or treatment is withdrawn. This is usually done by withdrawal of life support or medicine. In the UK we can only withdraw food and drink with sugared water
What is non-voluntarily euthanasia?
When a persons wishes cannot be carried out so someone else makes the decision. This has to be passive and has to be passed by high court.
'There is no disease that Allah has created...'
'...except also has created a remedy' -Hadith
'Whenever a Muslim is afflicted by illness, continuous pain...'
'...Allah causes this to be an atonement for his sins" - Hadith
'If you save a life...'
'...it would be as if you saved the life of the whole people' - Qur'an
'Take not life which Allah has made sacred...'
'...Except by way of justice and law' - Qur'an
'Nor can a soul die...'
'...except by Allah's leave' - Qur'an