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Flashcards in Issues in Personality Assessment Deck (18):

Observer Reports: What does it do? Categories?

Measures of personality come from someone other than the person being assessed.
Interviews & other kinds


Interviews: benefits and drawbacks? Sub categories?

➢ Can be especially insightful if person is asked to talk about something other than themselves – boundaries come down
➢ In the moment observation vs. summative judgments
➢ Can be misleading, can be helpful if it’s structured in certain ways


Other kids of observer reports: definition? What's identity claims, feeling regulators and behavioral residues?

Other kinds of observer ratings can be simply making judgments about a person based on watching his or her actions.
➢ Identity Claims: objects that symbolize a present or hope for identity
➢ Feeling Regulators: intended to manage our emotions
➢ Behavioral residues: reflect our every day actions


What's self reports? Done in what way? Question type? What's inventory?

- People themselves indicate what they’re like or how they feel or act
➢ Usually done in concrete, specific way
➢ Common question types: True/False, Likert scales,
➢ Inventory: Aims to assess multiple aspects of personality at once – includes many scales in one test
• Requires that multiple scales be developed separately before being combined


Implicit Assessment: What is it? How was it conducted? Historical and modern example?

- Techniques aim to discover people’s unconscious attitudes or perceptions – often include parts of their personalities they may be ignorant of or try to hide.
• Typically these tests presents a stimuli of some sort and then asks the person to make judgments about it.
• Pattern of responses (often measured in RT) informs assessment
• Historical example – TAT
• Modern example: Project Implicit


Subjective vs. Objective Measures: What's subjective measures? What's objective measures?

- Subjective measures: interpretation is part of the measure.
- Subjective: whether a person is neurotic, etc..
- Objective: how many time does this person tremor


Reliability of Measurement: What is it? What does it mean to have high reliability?

How sure can you be that you will get the same measurement if you observe it again?
High reliability = high degree of consistency or repeatability


Internal Consistency: What is it? What's one way to measure internal consistency?

- Each observer or item carries its own error, so to cancel this out, we use many different question items. Internal consistency refers to the extent that they all agree with one another
- Split half reliability is one way to measure internal consistency
People score high on one half of the measure should also score high on the other half


Inter-rater reliability: What is it? How do you know you have high inter-rate reliability?

- Similar to internal consistency, but instead of items we are now concerned with agreement among different raters/observers.
- Raters whose judgments correlate highly with each other across many ratings are said to have high inter-rater reliability


Stability Across Time: What does it mean? What's test-retest reliability?

- Extent to which measurements are stable over time.
- Assessment at one time should agree fairly well with assessment done at a different time
- Test-retest Reliability: Does assessment at time 1 = assessment at time 2?


Validity of Measurement: What is it?

Validity refers to the extent an test truly measures what its says it does.


Construct Validity

How well does the operational definition (what you are measuring) match the conceptual definition (the abstract concept you have in mind)?


Criterion Validity

Does your measurement produce results that are consistent with an external criterion, such as a trained observer? (compare to outcome)
Also referred to as “predictive validity”


Convergent Validity

Is measurement similar to other tests that measure similar constructs?


Discriminant Validity

How exact is the measurement… or does it also capture lots of similar but irrelevant constructs?
It does not measure qualities it’s not intended to measure.


Face Validity

Does the test measure what it appears to when you look at the test questions/observation methods, etc.?


Culture and Identity

Does psychological construct mean the same thing in different cultures?
Do people interpret questions the same way in different cultures?


Response Sets: 2 types, what are they?

a. Acquisence
- Tendency for people to select “yes” or always circle “5”.
- Everyone does this but to varying degrees.
- Can be prevented by having some items that ask reverse.
b. Social Desirability: Tendency for people to answer in way that paints them in a good light