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Flashcards in Methods Deck (15):

What is introspection?

Introspection is what you're like as a person, what motivates you, your basic needs, likes and dislikes, etc..


What value does introspection add to the study of personality?

People might get biased and not getting the whole picture. People can answer them according to the person they want to be.


What are case studies?

detailed, comprehensive descriptions of one person's personality.


What value do case studies add to the study of personality?

The idea is that by going really specific, we can understand in a more detailed and richer way. Example: Henry Murray and TAT


What is the TAT? Who invented it? How is it used?

TAT: Thematic Apperception Test, invented by Henry Murray.
Ask participants to look at an ambiguous picture and describe this picture in detail


What are the benefits and drawbacks of TAT?

Benefits: By looking at this ambiguous scene, their narratives are going to uncover their underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world.
1. Low internal consistency: low correlation
2. Low validity - matches clinical assessments at about chance level.
3. Proponents of the TAT say it is unfair to judge the test according to traditional psychometric measures: findings do generalize to specific patient's life, not necessary to generalize to population


What are Diary Studies and what do they offer to the study of Personality?

Diary studies: users self-report their activities at regular intervals to create a log of their activities, thoughts, and frustration.
Become easier with modern technology.
Not in a lab environment and it's hard to know whether participants are reporting it accurately or forget to answer


What is a correlation? Define the concepts of strength and direction

Strength: expressed by how close to 1 or -1
Correlation coefficient is: .8 -> Strong correlation; .4 -> moderate correlation; .2 -> weak correlation
Direction: Expressed by whether correlation coefficient is positive or negative: positive, negative, none.


What is statistical significance? What does it mean?

Statistical significance is achieved when there's a less than 5% chance that the result (or a larger one) could be due to chance. (p


What is the drawback to correlations?

Although correlations show that two variables are related, they DON'T PROVE CAUSALITY: third variable problem.


How do experimental designs address the drawbacks of correlational designs

By manipulating independent variable -> predicted to cause change in the dependent variable
Experimental control: created through random assignment & random sampling
Dependent variable: the variable believed to be caused, or effected by the independent variable


Difference between random assignment and random sampling

Random assignment: randomly assign participants into different conditions
Random sampling: randomly choose participants from a larger population to participate in the study. Each participant has the same chance of being chosen.


Difference between a single factor and multi factor design?

Single factor: Only one independent variable
Multifactor: More than one independent variable - each manipulated independently.


Describe how a multi factor design can be performed using at least one variable that is continuous.

Create a cut-off point, create groups to categorize continuous variable


What is a main effect? What is an interaction?

Main effect: the effect of only one independent variable on the dependent variable
Interaction: the effect of the two independent variables combined on the dependent variable.