Flashcards in Methods Deck (15):

1

## What is introspection?

### Introspection is what you're like as a person, what motivates you, your basic needs, likes and dislikes, etc..

2

## What value does introspection add to the study of personality?

### People might get biased and not getting the whole picture. People can answer them according to the person they want to be.

3

## What are case studies?

### detailed, comprehensive descriptions of one person's personality.

4

## What value do case studies add to the study of personality?

### The idea is that by going really specific, we can understand in a more detailed and richer way. Example: Henry Murray and TAT

5

## What is the TAT? Who invented it? How is it used?

###
TAT: Thematic Apperception Test, invented by Henry Murray.

Ask participants to look at an ambiguous picture and describe this picture in detail

6

## What are the benefits and drawbacks of TAT?

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Benefits: By looking at this ambiguous scene, their narratives are going to uncover their underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world.

Drawbacks:

1. Low internal consistency: low correlation

2. Low validity - matches clinical assessments at about chance level.

3. Proponents of the TAT say it is unfair to judge the test according to traditional psychometric measures: findings do generalize to specific patient's life, not necessary to generalize to population

7

## What are Diary Studies and what do they offer to the study of Personality?

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Diary studies: users self-report their activities at regular intervals to create a log of their activities, thoughts, and frustration.

Become easier with modern technology.

Not in a lab environment and it's hard to know whether participants are reporting it accurately or forget to answer

8

## What is a correlation? Define the concepts of strength and direction

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Strength: expressed by how close to 1 or -1

Correlation coefficient is: .8 -> Strong correlation; .4 -> moderate correlation; .2 -> weak correlation

Direction: Expressed by whether correlation coefficient is positive or negative: positive, negative, none.

9

## What is statistical significance? What does it mean?

### Statistical significance is achieved when there's a less than 5% chance that the result (or a larger one) could be due to chance. (p

10

## What is the drawback to correlations?

### Although correlations show that two variables are related, they DON'T PROVE CAUSALITY: third variable problem.

11

## How do experimental designs address the drawbacks of correlational designs

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By manipulating independent variable -> predicted to cause change in the dependent variable

Experimental control: created through random assignment & random sampling

Dependent variable: the variable believed to be caused, or effected by the independent variable

12

## Difference between random assignment and random sampling

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Random assignment: randomly assign participants into different conditions

Random sampling: randomly choose participants from a larger population to participate in the study. Each participant has the same chance of being chosen.

13

## Difference between a single factor and multi factor design?

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Single factor: Only one independent variable

Multifactor: More than one independent variable - each manipulated independently.

14

## Describe how a multi factor design can be performed using at least one variable that is continuous.

### Create a cut-off point, create groups to categorize continuous variable

15