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Flashcards in IV Therapy Deck (13):

Hypertonic solution

Greater concentration than body fluid. D10W. Pull fluid into the vessels. Fluids flow to a high concentration


Hypotonic solution

Less concentrated than body fluid. 0.45% NaCl. Pulls fluid into the tissue


IV flow rate

Total solution/# of hours to run= ml/h

Total volume x drop factor/ minutes= gtt/min


Caustic solution

Sodium bicarb. Damaging to veins. Need big veins. If long term therapy need big vein.


Isotonic solution

Same concentration as the fluid of the person you're putting it into. Not appropriate for those in shock or elyte imbalances. 0.9% NaCl, D5W



Fluid comes out of the vessel and into the tissue. SnS- cool skin, swelling, pain, dec in flow rate. Tourniquet trick to check dripping. Discontinue IV, warm compress, elevate arm, start new IV above/proximal to site or other arm.


Extravasation of IV

Vesicant is medication or IV solution that causes blisters and tissue sloughing. Meds- gentamicin, penicillin, vancomycin, Dilantin, antineoplastics (vincas get warm compress rest get cool) , calcium, potassium, epinephrine. Pull out IV and aspirate.


Phlebitis, thrombophlebitis

Redness, warm, tender, swelling, leukocytosis. D/c IV, warm compress, restart IV at new site



Assess- ecchymosis, swelling, leakage of blood. D/c IV, apply pressure, ice bag 24h, restart IV in other arm


Clotting of IV

Assess- dec flow rate, back flow of blood into tubing. D/c, do not irrigate, milk, inc flow rate or hang solution higher, do not aspirate cannula, inject Urokinase


PICC line

Placed in SVC or brachial cephalon vein. Midline between AC and clavicle. Stay up to 6 mo. Comp- pneumothorax, dysrhythmias, thrombophlebitis, nerve or tendon damage, resp distress, embolism. Imp- change dressing 2-3x/wk when wet or nonocclusive. Flush w/ 2ml NS followed by 5 ml heparin (100 u/ml) into each lumen. No BP.


MLC (midline catheter)

Enlarges 2 gauges and elongates 2.5 cm after insertion. Takes 2 hrs. Placed b/n AC and clavicle. In place 1-8 wks. Comp- thrombosis, phlebitis, air embolism, infection, vascular perforation. Flush with NS and heparin q12h or after meds


Percutaneous central catheter

Triple lumen. Insertion- placed supine head low, turn head away from procedure, valsalva maneuver, abx ointment and transparent sterile dressing, verify w/ xray. Lure lock. Distal- blood draws. Middle- TPN or Reg IV infusion. Proximal- blood transfusions or meds. Change site q4wks. Tubing changed q24h. Flush w/ heparin BID, after infusion, specimen withdrawal, d/c. Dressing change 2-3x/wk