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Anatomy Exam 3 > Joints of UE > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints of UE Deck (48)
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1

What are the joints in the pectoral girdle?

Sternoclavicular (SC) joint

Acromioclavicular (AC) joint

Scapulothoracic (ST) joint

Glenohumeral (GH) joint

2

Why is the ST joint not considered a true joint?

Because the scapula has no direct bony connection to the thorax, it is a physiological joint reflecting how the scapula moves relative to the thorax

3

What are the movements of the scapula?

elevation/depression

retraction/protraction

upward rotation/downward rotation

4

What muscles elevate the scapula?

superior fibers of trapezius

levator scapulae

5

What muscles cause scapular depression?

inferior fibers of trapezius

pectoralis minor

6

What muscles retract the scapula?

middle fibers of trapezius

rhomboid minor and major

7

What muscles protract the scapula?

pectoralis minor

serratus anterior

8

What muscles perform upward rotation of the scapula?

serratus anterior

superior and inferior fibers of trapezius

9

What muscles perform downward rotation of the scapula?

levator scapulae

rhomboid minor and rhomboid major

10

For every 2 deg of glenohumeral movement there is...

1 deg of scapulothoracic movement

11

Sternoclavicular (SC) joint

synovial joint with an articular disc

movements: anterior/posterior
elevation/depression

12

sternoclavicular joint injury

dislocations uncommon due to strength of capsular ligaments, more likely that clavicle will frx.

13

What are the ligaments of the SC joint?

costoclavicular ligament

capsular ligament

14

Acromioclavicular (AC) joint

synovial joint with an articular disc

primary movement: rotation of the acromion on the clavicle

15

What are the ligaments of the AC joint?

acromioclavicular ligament -reinforces joint

coracoclavicular ligament - prevents medial movement of the scapula relative to the clavicle

16

Dislocation of the AC joint

shoulder seperation

acromioclavicular ligament can tear or rupture through a direct blow or fall on a shoulder or outstretched hand

if the coracoclavicular ligaments also tears/ruptures- the shoulder will separate from the clavicle

17

Glenohumeral joint

ball &socket joint with glenoid labrum

18

What is the glenoid labrum?

fibrocartilaginous ring that acts to deepen the glenoid cavity

19

What movements occur at the GHJ?

flexion/extension

abduction/adduction

medial rotation/lateral rotation

20

What muscles flex the GHJ?

pectoralis major

anterior deltoid

coracobrachialis

biceps brachii (weakly)

21

What muscles extend the GHJ?

Posterior deltoid

latissimus dorsi

long head of triceps brachii

22

What muscles abduct the GHJ?

supraspinatus- initial 15deg

deltoid- after 15deg

23

What muscles adduct the GHJ?

pectoralis major

latissimus dorsi

subscapularis

teres major

24

What are the ligaments of the GHJ?

capsular: coracohumeral, glenohumeral, transverse humeral

extracapsular: coracoacromial

25

How can rotator cuff muscles be injured?

repetitive use

tendon of supraspinatous muscle is most frequently torn

26

Dislocation of GHJ

ligaments and tendons do not cross the GHJ inferiorly, therefore the inferior aspect of the capsule is weakest, most dislocations occur "anteriorly"

27

Anterior GHJ dislocations endangers which vessels?

musculocutaneous n.

branches of axillary a.

28

What vessels are endangered by surgical neck fracture?

axillary n.

circumflex humeral aa.

29

What vessels are endangered by mid shaft humeral fracture?

radial n. and deep artery and vein of the arm

30

What vessels are endangered by surgical supracondylar fracture?

median n. and brachial a.