Flashcards in Back Deck (55)
How many vertebrae do we have in the axial skeleton?
33; 24 mobile, 9 fused
What are the functions of the vertebral column?
protect spinal cord and spinal nerves, posture and locomotion
What are the movements of the vertebral column?
extension/flexion, lateral flexion, rotation
Describe the curvature of the vertebral column
alternating lordosis and kyphosis
primary curvature of the spine (thoracic and sacral)
concave anteriorly and develop early in ontogeny when the entire vertebral column is concave anteriorly
secondary curvature of the spine (cervical and lumbar)
concave posteriorly and develop during infancy, as infant learns to hold head up and sit up right and walk, respectively
What are the types of abnormal vertebral column curvatures?
excessive thoracic kyphosis
excessive lumbar lordosis
Describe excessive thoracic kyphosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature "hump back" deformity
Describe excessive lumbar lordosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature "sway back"
lateral deviation coupled with a rotational component
located anteriorly on vertebrae
articulates with intervertebral discs
supports body weight so gradually increases in size from cervical to sacral
vertebral (neural) arch
located posterior to the vertebral body, consists of 2 pedicles and 2 lamina
2 superior and 2 inferior projections at the junction of pedicle and lamina
bony canal formed by adjacent vertebral foramina, contains spinal cord and associated structures
2 superior and 2 inferior vertebral notches per vertebra, located on the superior or inferior aspect of the pedicles
adjacent superior and inferior notches help form an intervertebral foramen
blood vessels and nerves transverse this foramen
small vertebral bodies, bifid spinous process
posteriorly projecting spinous process, have transverse foramina for the passage of the vertebral arteries and veins
also have uncinate processes
has the most prominent cervical spinous process
lacks a vertebral body and spinous process; ring shaped
superior articular facets for articulation with the occipital condyles of the cranium
dens process is the portion of the C1 vertebral body that is incorporated into the C2 vertebra during development
spinous processes are long and slender and slant inferiorly to the level of the vertebral body below
heart shaped bodies, looks like giraffe
have costal facets on vertebral bodies and transverse processes for articulation with ribs
robust; large bodies
posteriorly projecting spinous processes
looks like a moose
What level of the vertebral column is best for spinal taps?
lumbar, due to large gaps between adjacent vertebrae in lumbar region
marks the junction of the L5 vertebra and sacrum
5 sacral vertebrae fuse into one triangular shaped bone, vertebral canal continues as sacral canal which ends at the sacral hiatus
an opening at the inferior sacrum that can be used for administering epidural anesthesia
4 coccygeal vertebrae fuse into one triangular-shaped bone
focal point for muscle and ligament attachment
What are the functions of IV discs?
distribute force/weight, provide flexibility to vertebral column
Cervical/lumbar IV discs are thicker anteriorly
What are the component of IV discs?
anulus fibrosus - outer fibrocartilaginous ring
nucleus pulposus- gelatinous center mass