Back Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 3 > Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in Back Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

How many vertebrae do we have in the axial skeleton?

33; 24 mobile, 9 fused

2

What are the functions of the vertebral column?

protect spinal cord and spinal nerves, posture and locomotion

3

What are the movements of the vertebral column?

extension/flexion, lateral flexion, rotation

4

Describe the curvature of the vertebral column

alternating lordosis and kyphosis

5

kyphosis

primary curvature of the spine (thoracic and sacral)

concave anteriorly and develop early in ontogeny when the entire vertebral column is concave anteriorly

6

Lordoses

secondary curvature of the spine (cervical and lumbar)

concave posteriorly and develop during infancy, as infant learns to hold head up and sit up right and walk, respectively

7

What are the types of abnormal vertebral column curvatures?

excessive thoracic kyphosis

excessive lumbar lordosis

scoliosis

8

Describe excessive thoracic kyphosis

exaggerated thoracic curvature "hump back" deformity

9

Describe excessive lumbar lordosis

exaggerated lumbar curvature "sway back"
deformity

10

Scoliosis

lateral deviation coupled with a rotational component

11

Vertebral body

located anteriorly on vertebrae

articulates with intervertebral discs

supports body weight so gradually increases in size from cervical to sacral

12

vertebral (neural) arch

located posterior to the vertebral body, consists of 2 pedicles and 2 lamina

13

articular processes

2 superior and 2 inferior projections at the junction of pedicle and lamina

14

vertebral canal

bony canal formed by adjacent vertebral foramina, contains spinal cord and associated structures

15

vertebral notches

2 superior and 2 inferior vertebral notches per vertebra, located on the superior or inferior aspect of the pedicles

adjacent superior and inferior notches help form an intervertebral foramen

16

intervertebral foramen

blood vessels and nerves transverse this foramen

17

cervical vertebrae

n=7

small vertebral bodies, bifid spinous process

posteriorly projecting spinous process, have transverse foramina for the passage of the vertebral arteries and veins

also have uncinate processes

18

vertebra prominens

vertebra C7

has the most prominent cervical spinous process

19

Atlas

C1

lacks a vertebral body and spinous process; ring shaped

superior articular facets for articulation with the occipital condyles of the cranium

20

Axis

C2

dens process is the portion of the C1 vertebral body that is incorporated into the C2 vertebra during development

21

Thoracic vertebrae

n=12

spinous processes are long and slender and slant inferiorly to the level of the vertebral body below

heart shaped bodies, looks like giraffe

have costal facets on vertebral bodies and transverse processes for articulation with ribs

22

lumbar vertebrae

n=5

robust; large bodies

posteriorly projecting spinous processes

looks like a moose

23

What level of the vertebral column is best for spinal taps?

lumbar, due to large gaps between adjacent vertebrae in lumbar region

24

lumbosacral angle

marks the junction of the L5 vertebra and sacrum

25

sacrum

5 sacral vertebrae fuse into one triangular shaped bone, vertebral canal continues as sacral canal which ends at the sacral hiatus

26

sacral hiatus

an opening at the inferior sacrum that can be used for administering epidural anesthesia

27

coccyx

4 coccygeal vertebrae fuse into one triangular-shaped bone

focal point for muscle and ligament attachment

28

What are the functions of IV discs?

distribute force/weight, provide flexibility to vertebral column

Cervical/lumbar IV discs are thicker anteriorly

29

What are the component of IV discs?

anulus fibrosus - outer fibrocartilaginous ring

nucleus pulposus- gelatinous center mass

30

Joints of the vertebral bodies

cartilaginous (symphyses) joints, consisting of IV discs & ligaments

there is also uncovertebral joints and facet joints