Kaplan Ch. 4 Cognition, Consciousness, Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 4 Cognition, Consciousness, Language Deck (93):

Stanford-Benet IQ test score calculation

IQ = (mental age / chronological age) * 100


What is a representative heuristic?

Categorizes items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical/stereotypical/representative image of the category


What is crystallized intelligence? When does it peak? When does it decline?

Use of learned skills and knowledgePeaks in middle adulthoodDeclines with age


With regards to problem solving, what is a mental set?

The tendency to approach similar problems in the same way


Inductive reasoning

AKA bottom up reasoningSeeks to create a theory via generalizations


Trial and Error

Various solutions tried until 1 is found to work


Functional fixedness

The inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional manner


What is fluid intelligence? When does it peak? When does it decline?

Problem solving skillsPeaks in early adulthoodDeclines with age


Confirmation Bias

Tendency to focus on information tat fits an individual's beliefs while rejecting information that goes against them, may prevent an individual to confirm the existence of Disconfirmation principle


Disconfirmation principle

Evidence obtained from testing demonstrates that the solution does not work


Factors that affect intelligence (5)

GenesEnvironmentEducational ExperiencesSocioeconomic StatusNutrition


What is a heuristic?

A simplified principle used to make decisions, colloquially called rules of thumb.


Deductive reasoning

AKA top-down reasoningStarts from a set of general rules and draws conclusions from the information given



Formula or procedure for solving certain type of problem


Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences - what are the 7 types of intelligence he described?

LinguisticLogical - mathematicalMusicalVisual - spatialBodily - kinestheticInterpersonalIntrapersonal


4 common types of problem solving approaches

Trial and ErrorAlgorithmsDeductive ReasoningInductive Reasoning


What two things does confirmation bias lead to? (hint: these are both things that Donald Trump has displayed consistently...)

1) overconfidence: tendency to erroneously interpret one's decisions, knowledge, and beliefs as infallible2) belief perseverance: inability to reject a particular belief despite clear evidence to the contrary


What factors are considered protective against intellectual decline? (4)

Higher educational levelFrequency performance of intellectual activitiesSocializationStimulating environment


What is a decline in intelligence w/ aging linked to?

How long an older adult retains the ability to function in activities of daily living


Define consciousness and list the 4 states of consciousness.

Definition: one's level of awarenessAlertness, sleep, dreaming, altered states


ALERTNESS1) Definition2) Experience physiological level of _______?3) State is maintained by what part of the brain?4) What 2 parts of the brain communicate to sustain alertness?5) What does an injury/ disruption in this communication result in?

1) State of consciousness in which we are awake and able to think2) Arousal - cortisol levels are elevated3) Prefrontal cortex4) Fibers from prefrontal cortex communicate w/ reticular formation (in brainstem) to keep cortex awake and alert5) Coma


What are the two ways intelligence is sub divided?

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence


Which brain waves characterize the alert state?

Beta and alpha


Beta waves:(1) What are their frequency?(2) When do they occur?(3) Why do they occur?

1) highest frequency of all brain waves2) occur when person is alert or doing mental task that requires concentration3) Occur b/c neurons are firing randomly


Alpha waves:(1) When do they occur?(2) What are their frequency?

(1) Occur wen we are awake but resting w/ eyes closed(2) Slower and more synchronized than beta waves


What brain wave patterns characterize Stage 1 of sleep?

Theta waves = irregular waveforms w/ slower frequencies and higher voltages


What brain wave patterns characterize Stage 2 of sleep?

Theta waves + sleep spindles + k complexes


What brain wave patterns characterize stage 3 and 4 of sleep?

Delta waves = Slow wave sleep (SWS)


Stage 3 and 4 of sleep:(1) What is a delta wave?(2) What becomes more difficult in these stage?(3) What is this sleep stage associated wrt brain function?

1) low frequency, high voltage sleep waves2) Rousing a sleeping person3) Cognitive recovery, explicit / conscious memory consolidation, increased growth hormone release


NREM sleep

Non-rapid eye movement = stages 1-4 of sleep cycle


REM sleep (definition)

Rapid - eye movement sleep = interspersed between cycles of NREM


What happens physiologically during REM sleep?

Arousal levels reach that of waking, but muscles are paralyzed


What happens psychologically during REM sleep?

Dreaming is most likely to occur, associated w/ implicit / procedural memory consolidation


Sleep cycle

Single complete progression through sleep stages


Circadian rhythm

Approximate 24 hour cycle that is somewhat affected by external cues such as light


How does light help control the sleep/wake cycle?

In the case of decreased light: retina senses decrease in light, retina sends signal to hypothalamus, hypothalamus sends signal to pineal gland to release melatonin to cause sleepinessIn the case of increased light: retina senses increase in light, retina sends signal to hypothalamus, hypothalamus releases CRF which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release ACTH which enters the blood stream and stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol into the blood which produces wakefulness


Explain the activation - synthesis theory of why dreams occur.

Dreams are caused by widespread, random activation of neural circuitry, which may mimic incoming sensory information, stored memories, desires, needs, etc. A dream is the cortex attempting to stitch tense random bits of brain activity together.


Explain the problem-solving dream theory.

Dreams are a way to solve problems b/c they allow interpretation of obstacles in a way that is not bound by the rules of the physical world


Explain the cognitive process dream theory

Dreams are a sleeping version of stream of consciousness


What is a dyssomnia? What disorders are included in this category?

Sleep disorder that makes it difficult to fall asleep, stay asleep, or avoid sleep(includes insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea)


What is parasomnia? What disorders are included in this category?

Abnormal movements or behaviors during sleep(include sleep walking and night terrors)


When do most sleep disorders occur?

During NREM sleep


Define Insomnia and state other physical/psychological disorders it is related to.

Difficulty falling asleep / staying asleepRelated to anxiety, depression, medications, disrupted sleep cycles


Define Narcolepsy and describe its symptoms.

Lack of voluntary control over onset of sleepSymptoms: - Cataplexy = loss of muscle control and intrusion of REM sleep usually caused by emotional trigger- Sleep paralysis = sensation of being unable to move despite being awake- Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations = hallucinations when going to sleep (gogic) or waking (pompic)


Define sleep apnea and explain the two possible underlying causes of the disorder.

Sleep apnea = Inability to breathe during sleepObstructive SA = physical blockage in pharynx or trachea prevents airflowCentral SA = brain fails to send signals to diaphragm to breathe


Who get night terrors most often?What are night terrors?When do they occur during sleep cycle?What is a common symptom of night terrors?

Most common in childrenPeriods of intensive anxietyOccur during SWSSympathetic overdrive (increased breathing / heart rate, etc.)


When does sleepwalking most often occur?

During SWS (stages 3 and 4 of sleep cycle)


What is REM rebound?

After period of sleep deprivation, if one is permitted to sleep normally, an earlier onset of REM sleep and greater duration may be observed


What are depressants? What are 3 common examples?

Depressants = reduce nervous system activity, result in sense of relaxation and reduced anxietyExamples: alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines


What effect does alcohol have on the brain?

Increases activity of GABA (chloride channel), which results in hyperpolarization of membranes, which has inhibitory effect on brain leading to diminished arousal


What effect does alcohol have on behavior?

Behavior = less inhibited b/c centers of brain that prevent inappropriate behavior are also depressed


Alcohol myopia

Inability to recognize consequences of actions (short sighted view of world as result of consumption)


Wernicke - Korsakoff Syndrome

Brain disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, impaired mental status + loss of motor skills


Long term consequences of alcoholism

Liver cirrhosis (scaring) and failure, damage to pancreas, gastric ulcers, GI cancer, brain disorders


What effect do benzodiazepines have on the brain?

Increase GABA activity, same general effect otherwise as alcohol (sense of relaxation)


What are stimulants? What are 3 common examples?

Increase arousal in nervous systemEx: amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy (MDMA)


What effect do amphetamines have on the brain?

Increase release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin at synapse and simultaneously decrease reuptake


What psychological effect do amphetamines have?

Cause increased arousal, decreased appetite and decreased need for sleep, sense of euphoria, anxiety, paranoia


What physiological effect do amphetamines have?

Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, prolonged use may lead to stroke / brain damage


What effect does cocaine have on the brain?

Decreased reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin


What physiological effect does cocaine have?

Anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties, used in surgeries in highly vascularized areas, when used recreationally may lead to heart attack / stroke


Physiological effects of Ecstasy?

Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, blurry vision, sweating, nausea, hyperthermia


What effect do opioids have on the brain?

Bind to opioid receptors and cause decreased reaction to pain and sense of euphoria


What pathway in the brain is drug addiction related to?

Mesolimbic reward pathway


Selective attention

Focus on one part of environment while ignoring others, means of filtering sensory stimuli, NOT an all or nothing system


Divided attention

Ability to perform multiple tasks at same time



Sound of language



Speech sounds in a language


Categorical perception

Ability to make distinction between sounds that communicate speech and sounds that do not



Structure of words



Building blocks of wordsEx: redesign ( - re indicates do again, - design is the verb root, - ed indicates action in the past)



Association of meaning with a word



How words are put together to form sentences



Dependence of language on context and preexisting knowledge


What features of language acquisition do children display at each of these key timepoints in development:
1) 9 to 12 months of age
2) 12 to 18 months of age
3) 18 to 20 months of age
4) 2 to 3 years
5) 5+ years

1) Babbling
2) Add 1 word per month
3) Explosion of language, use differing inflection and gestures, combine words
4) Sentences with 3+ words, make many grammatical errors
5) Language mostly mastered by this point


Nativist Theory
1) Who is the linguist that proposed this theory?
2) What is a language acquisition device (LAD)?
3) What is a sensitive period? When is this period for language development?

1) Noam Chomsky
2) The ability to acquire language is innate due to a theoretical pathway in the brain that allows infants to process and absorb language rules
3) A time when the engironmental input has maximal effect on the development of an ability, for language, this is before puberty


Learning Theory
1) Who proposed this theory of language acquisition?
2) How is this related to operant conditioning?

1) B.F. Skinner
2) Babies show preference for phonemes (sounds) in language spoken by their parents, so as parents repeat (reinforce) the sounds of their language the infant perceives these sounds as having more value than those that are less reinforced (heard less often)


What is the social interactionist theory of language development?

Language is acquired because the child wants to communicate and be socially interactive. As the child is exposed to language, they group sounds and meanings together and keep those that are used in communication and lose those that aren't


Linguist Relativity Hypothesis (aka Whorfian hypothesis)

Our perception of reality is determined by the content of language


Boca's area

Located in inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe, controls motor function of speech


Boca's aphasia

Damage to Boca's area leads to reduced or absent ability to produce spoken language


Wernicke's area

Located in superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe, responsible for language comprehension


Wernicke's aphasia

Damage to Wernicke's area leads to loss of speech comprehension, patient's make nonsensical sounds or wrong word combinations, but often believe they are speaking perfectly well


Arcuate Fasciculus

Bundle of axons that allows association between Boca's area and Wernicke's area


Conduction Aphasia

If arcuate fasciculus is damaged, speech production and comprehension will be intact but patient will be unable to repeat information due to loss of connection



Study of how our brains process and react to information presented to us by the world


Cognitive Development

Development of one's ability to think and solve problems


What did Jean Piaget propose?

That there are qualitative differences between the way children and adults think


What are the 4 stages of Piaget's proposed cognitive development model?

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational


What are schemata (part of Piaget's cognitive development theory)?

Organized patterns of thought / behavior that provide a means of learning via instinctual interaction with the environment
Can include concept, behavior, or a sequence of events


What is the relationship of these schemata to development?

As a child moves through the various stages of development, new information is placed into these schemata


By what 2 means did Piaget theorize that new information is processed and incorporated into these schemata?

1) Assimilation = process of classifying new information into existing schemata
2) Accommodation = existing schemata are modified to fit new information as needed


Lev Vygotsky

Educational psychologist who proposed that the engine driving cognitive development is the child's internalization of his/her culture