Karius Special Senses: Hearing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Karius Special Senses: Hearing Deck (57):
1

Outer ear function

funnel the sound waves into ear

2

Middle ear

Impedance matching - most sound from air to liquid

3

Inner ear

cochlea converts sound to action potentials

4

Scala vestibuli and Scala tympani relationship

continuous, fluid-filled compartments (perilymph)

5

Helicotrema function

connects the scala tympani and scala vestibuli

6

Perilymph composition

High Na+, low K+ (similar to ECF)

7

What separates the scala media from the scala tympani and scala vestibuli

Reissner's membrane and Basilar membrane

8

Fluid inside the scala media

endolymph

9

Endolymph composition

high K+ and low Na+

10

What is something disrupts the cochlea and perilymph mixes with the endolymph

hearing will be effected profoundly

11

Head motions

crucial for external ear - helps turn towards noise and improve hearing

12

Middle ear hearing process

transmit sound waves to aqueous environment of cochlea thru ossicles and oval window

13

Inner ear hearing process

stapes hits oval window causing basilar membrane to vibrate

14

High frequency, short wavelength

higher pitch- cause maximum vibration closest to oval window

15

Low frequency, long wavelength

lower pitch, maximum vibration of basilar membrane farthest away from oval window (towards helicotrema)

16

Organ of Corti

as basilar membrane moves, organ of corti doesn't fully connect to basilar membrane so it won't move with it

17

Hair cells of basilar membrane and tectorial membrane

dependent on tectorial membrane movement

18

Tectorial membrane and hair cell movement

doesn't move when the basilar membrane moves-- this causes movement of hair cells (because one side stationary and one side is moving)

19

Outer hair cells

give us our hearing

20

Hair cell structure

have shorter stereocilia-- get progressively longer and connect at top protein

21

Tip ink

links tips of each sterocilia so they all move together as 1 hair cell

22

Kinocilium function

determines whether sound is coming towards or away from it and determines whether to depolarize of hyperpolarize

only present during dvpt then goes away

23

What causes hair cell depolarization

during transduction, if sterocilia are bent towards kinocilium

24

What causes hair cell to hyperpolarize

stereocilia move away from kinocilium

25

What channels open during depolarization (mvnt towards kinocilium)

K+ channels open and K+ enters cell

26

Two paths in the cochlear nucleus

dorsal and ventral

27

Ventral pathway

processing of temporal and spectral features of the sound

28

Dorsal pathway

localizing sound

29

Medial superior olive

intraaural time difference- how the sound arrived at the two ears differently (where the sound is)

ex. how sound coming from R side reaches the right ear miliseconds before the L ear

30

Lateral superior olive

Intensity -- how the sound arrived at the two ears differently

ex. how sound is slightly reduced compared to what the right ear detected

31

2 factors in determining where a sound originated from

time and intensity

32

Inferior colliculus

suppresses information related to echoes and determines location on horizon
Where is it L, R, front, back NOT above or below

33

Superior colliculus

create spatial map of the sound's location
tells me above and below

34

Primary auditory cortex (A1)

tonotopic representation, loudness, volume, rate of frequency

35

Tonotopic

oriented by tone

36

Rostral area of primary auditory cortex

Low frequency

37

Caudal area of primary auditory cortex

high frequency detection

38

Auditory Association Cortex

area that helps start to interpret the sound
*broca's and wenicke's*

39

Linear acceleration

motion that occurs in horizontal plane or vertical plane

40

Angular acceleration

requires rotation around one or more planes

41

What detects acceleration?

semicircular canals, utricle, saccule

42

Utricle

detect horizontal plane sound

43

Saccule

detect vertical accelerations

44

Rotation acceleration

detected by horizontal (lateral) canal

45

Falling downward (or being thrown backwards)

detected by posterior semicircular canals

46

Falling forwards

detected by anterior semicircular canal

47

Ampulla

detects movement of hair cells *in semicircular canals* and whether they depolarize or hyperpolarize

48

Macula

detects movement of hair cells *utricle and saccule* and whether they depolarize or hyperpolarize

49

Fluid movement when there is motion of the body

endolymph motion, bending of hair cells in ampulla or macula, and activating the nerves

50

What muscle is activated with anterior semicircular canal?

superior rectus

51

What muscle is inhibited with anterior semicircular canal?

inferior rectus

52

What way do eyes move when I fall forward

Up

53

What muscle is activated with posterior semicircular canal?

superior oblique

54

What muscle is inhibited with posterior semicircular canal?

inferior oblique

55

What way do eyes move when I fall backward

Down

56

What muscle is activated with horizontal semicircular canal?

medial rectus of ipsilateral eye, lateral rectus of contralateral eye

57

What muscle is inhibited with horizontal semicircular canal?

lateral rectus of ipsilateral eye, medial rectus of contralateral eye