Olinger Eye Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Olinger Eye Deck (99):
1

Posterior chamber of the eye

Behind iris, before lens

2

Vitreous Layer

Everything posterior to posterior chamber

3

Outer Tunic

Sclera and cornea

4

Sclera

White of eye, absorbs light

5

Cornea

Transparent part of the eye

6

Middle tunic (Uvea)

Iris, ciliary processes, choroid

7

Iris

Pigmented part of the eye

8

Ciliary processes

used for focusing

9

Choroid

Blood of middle tunic

10

Inner tunic

Retina - has "seeing" neurons

11

Limbus

Transition zone between sclera and cornea
Part of outer tunic

12

Layers of the cornea (from anterior to posterior)

Core and epithelium, bowman's layer, storms, descemet's membrane, corneal endothelium

13

Corneal epithelium

Has hemidesmosomes where one end is attached to the next layer (bowman's capsule)

14

What is present in the stroma of the cornea?

Fibroblasts

15

Corneal endothelium

Semi-permeable and not air tight - some things can get through it

16

CIliary Body

Posterior lined with epithelium but anterior chamber is not

17

Aqueous humor

Fluid like

18

Vitreous humor

Gel like

19

Sphincter of the pupil

Sphincter papillae m

20

Dilator Pupillae

Contraction caused pupil dilation

21

Anterior chamber of eye

Everything anterior to iris

22

Fovea

Where you see things the clearest

23

Papilla

Area where there is no photoreceptor cells
"Blind spot" of the retina

24

Where are the axons dumped into the optic nerve

Papilla

25

Inner tunic location

Lines inner portion of the cornea

26

Rods

light

27

Cones

Color

28

10 layers of the retina

Inner limiting membrane
Nerve fiber layer
Ganglion cell layer
Inner plexiform layer
Inner nuclear layer
Outer plexiform layer
Outer nuclear layer
Outer limiting membrane
Inner and outer segments of rods and cones
Pigmented epithelium

29

Inner limiting membrane

In direct contact with vitreous

30

Nerve fiber layer

Axons of ganglion cells
Make up optic n

31

Ganglion cell layer

Axons to make up optic n

32

Inner nuclear layer

Bipolar cell body cells

33

Outer plexiform layer

Where synapse takes place

34

Outer nuclear layer

Cell body and nuclei of photoreceptor

35

Bipolar cells

In inner nuclear layer
1 dendrite end, 1 axon end
Take in for for the rod and cell to send to ganglion cell

36

Photoreceptor cells

In deepest layer

37

Choroid

Blood vessels

38

Where do we see the best

Fovea centralis

39

Where is the blind spot

Optic disk - all axons converge on one stop

40

Rods Photoreceptor cell characteristics

Plasma membrane folds in on itself to increase surface area and get light in and exciting cells in lower light

41

Cones photoreceptor cells

Short and do not have as much folding of outer segment

42

Pedicel

In cone photoreceptor cells
Is what is communicating with bipolar cells

43

Color blindness

When a single group of color-receptive cones is missing
Individual can't distinguish some colors
On the X chromosome

44

How does aqueous humor circulate

Made in the ciliary body, circulates around iris, picked up by trabecular meshwork, goes through canal of Schlemm and dumped into vein

45

Canal of Schlemm

Fluid percolates through thin endothelial lining and loose connective tissue
*not directly linked to trabecular meshwork*

46

Episcleral veins

What the aqueous humor eventually drains into from canal of Schlemm

47

Plug up trabecular meshwork

The ciliary body will continue to make aqueous humor and it will build up and squish the retina

48

Glaucoma

Obstruction of aqueous humor -- blockage of canal of Schlemm or inflammation preventing aqueous humor form reaching trabecular meshwork

49

End result of glaucoma

Increase intraoccular pressure

50

Zonular fibers of the lens

Attach to lens on one end and ciliary body on the other

51

3 regions of the lens

Anterior potion, equator of lens, Equatorial region

52

Anterior portion of lens

Epithelial, flattened cells

53

Equator of lens

More elongated cells and a of cell divison

54

Equatorial region

Helps focus image- Cortical lens fibers that liar cells to ciliary body

55

Cortical lens fibers

Squished cells in Equatorial region

56

Cataracts

Opacity of lens caused by Change in solubility of lens proteins

57

Conditions that can increase cataracts

Aging and diabetes

58

Conjunctiva

Lining of inner eyelid and folds over sclera

59

Tarsal glands

Inside the eyelid
Secretes fluid to help the eyelid float on the eyeball

60

Moll's glands

Sebaceous glands that make eye boogers

61

Two things that make eye boogers

Moll's glands and tarsal glands

62

Red eye (pink eye)

Subconjunctival hemorrhage and conjunctivitis where the conjunctiva swell

63

3 parts of the ear

External, middle, internal

64

Outer ear

Convey sound to tympanic membrane

65

Middle ear

Contains ossicles of ear
Where ear communicated with pharynx

*tympanic cavity*

66

Inner Ear

Where we do the actual hearing and determining the balance of our head

67

Malleus

In middle ear
Known as the "hammer"

68

Incus

In middle ear
Between the malleus and stapes

69

Stapes

In middle ear
Has a foot plate that sits in the oval window and goes in and out of it with the vibrations of the sound stimulus

70

Process of hearing

Sound hits the tympanic membrane which causes vibrations to the malleus, incus, and stapes. The stapes moves in and out of the oval window to move the fluid

71

Function of the tensor tympani m and the stapedius m

To slow down the vibrations

72

Components of the membranous labyrinth

2 small sacs- utricle and saccule

73

Labyrinth membrane

Each membrane lines the actual bony space

74

Innervation to the ear

Vestibulocochlear n -- specifically the vestibular n

75

Peri lymphatic duct

Extends from vestibule (saccule and utricle) to the subarachnoid space

76

Endolympathic duct

Dumps the endolymph into the endolympathic sac

77

Function of vestibule

Spatial awareness

78

How vestibule works

Fluid moves past sensory area that causes special cells to move and depolarize

79

Macula

Sensory receptor areas located in the wall of the saccule and utricle

80

Hair cells

When fluid moves, some hair cells depolarize in one direction while other hair cells depolarize when in another direction

**in saccule and utricle**

81

Kinocilium

Most important thing in producing depolarization or hyperpolarization controlled by ion channels

82

Type I hair cells

Further away from the base of the cupula

83

Type II hair cells

Located more towards the cupula

84

cupula

Glycoprotein-containing structure surrounded by endolymph in the ampulla of the semicircular canal

85

Cochlea

After stapes moves oval window which moves fluid -- fluid goes to cochlea and hits the round window to dissipate what came through the vibration

86

How many parts of the cochlear duct

3 Scala

87

What are the 2 Scala

Scala vestibuli, Scala media, Scala tympani

88

2 Scala with peri lymph

Scala vestibuli and Scala tympani

89

What lymph is in the Scala media

Endolymph

90

What separated the Scala vestibuli and the Scala media

Reissner's membrane

91

What separates the Scala media and the Scala tympani

Organ of corti and the basilar membrane

92

Stria vascular is

Associated with blood vessels in the cochlea

93

Where are the outer hair cells located

On the organ or corti

94

Where are the inner hair cells located

In between the organ of corti and the basilar membrane

95

How are inner and outer hair cells named

In relation to the center of the spiral

96

Tectorial membrane

Anchored to outer hair cells and fluid vibrates around the membrane and causes it to move the hair cells

97

Helicotreama

Vibrations from the Scala tympani go through, hit helicotreama, and then it sends the vibration to round window

98

Unique about Scala media

Vibrations never hit it

99

Outer hair cells vs inner hair cells

Outer are attached to tectorial membrane and inner are NOT