Karius Special Senses: Taste Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Karius Special Senses: Taste Deck (46):
1

Relation of smell and taste

interact to produce flavor of food
change with age

2

Where are odorant receptor located

cilia that protrude into mucus layer

3

What type of receptor are odorant receptors

G protein coupled receptors-- Gs
activated adenylyl cyclase

4

What if odorant persists for more than a few minutes

sensitivity of channel to cAMP is reduced
reduce Na and Ca entry

5

Olfactory neuron and odorant receptor relationship

olfactory neuron expresses the same odorant receptor on ALL of it's cilia

6

Location dependency for odorant receptors

different odorant receptors are localized to different parts of olfactory epithelium

7

Advantage to the distributed localization seen

if one area doesn't work then i just don't smell it-- i dont abolish the sense of smell

8

Odorant effect on odorant receptors

each odorant activated different combinations of odorant receptors to produce characteristic odor

9

Odorant concentration

changes the perceived smell

10

High concentrations of odorant

odorant binds with lower affinity

11

Trace amine associated receptors

produces physiologic/endocrine responses to pheromones (in urine)

12

Where do axons of olfactory neurons pass through

cribriform plate and synapse on the neurons on the olfactory bulb

13

Granule cell layer

interact with tufted cells

14

Mitral cell layer

olfactory neuron synapse here
long end goes to glomeruli and other becomes tract

15

Location of external plexiform layer

olfactory bulb

16

Glomerular layer

collection of neurons, synapse

17

Granule cell

NOT activated by olfactory neuron
release GABA and synapse with mitral and tufted cells

18

Where are tufted cells found

external plexiform later

19

Tufted cells

Send info to the brain

20

Three kinds of post-synaptic neurons

mitral cell, tufted cell, periglomerular cell

21

Mitral and Tufted cells

axons from these neurons will go to the olfactory cortex

22

Periglomerular cells

inhibit the activity from glomeruli (inhibit from getting to brain) -- getting rid of other distractions so the strongest smell goes to the brain
release GABA
remain in olfactory bulb

23

What happens at the ipsilateral olfactory bulb

all axons expressing same odorant converge on a medial and lateral glomeruli

24

Neighboring olfactory glomeruli

associated with chemically similar odorants

25

Olfactory cortex

send all odorants to same place and then be selective
responsible for identifying odorants
sends input BACK to epithelium to help adapt to smell

26

Anterior olfactory nucleus

relay info to same side and contralateral side
*how both sides of brain receive smell*

27

Piriform cortex

located in anterior olfactory nucleus of olfactory cortex
important in control of appetite

28

Lateral entorhinal corex

located in anterior olfactory nucleus of olfactory cortex

29

Entorhinal cortex

projects to hippocampus
important in memory of smell and recall of smell
NEMO!!

30

Medial orbitofrontal cortex

used to identify the flavor of foods

31

Taste (gustation)

chemical sense that interacts closely with olfaction

32

Sour taste

hydrogen ion via hydrogen canal

33

Salty taste

produced when sodium or calcium ion enter the taste bud via sodium or calcium channel

34

Umani taste

metabotropic glutamate receptor via glutamate

35

Sweet taste and bitter taste

use second messenger system not directed related to metabotropic receptors

36

Gustatory input travel to brain

NTS --> thalamus --> Gustatory cortex and lateral hypothalamus

37

Gustatory cortex

basic taste and innate responses
ex. attract sweet tastes or aversion of bitter taste

38

Perception of flavor: Gustatory input

from gustatory cortex

39

Perception of flavor: Olfactory input

from olfactory cortex

40

Perception of flavor: Somatosensory input

from mouth

41

Perception of flavor from all 3 areas

send axons to lateral posterior orbitofrontal cortex to produce sensation of flavor and appreciation of food

42

Compare and contrast receptors for smell an taste

Taste we have 5
Olfactory Gs to help Na and Ca channels open

43

How each signal (taste and olfactry) is modified/interpreted

largely in olfactory bulb, all going through glomeruli from a similar odorant and purpose to get rid of distractors

44

Process of each (taste and olfaction) in its respective cortex

identify what odor is - Entorhinal cortex
send hypothalamus for appetite control and identify what you're eating

45

Explain how a patient presenting with loss of taste may be experiencing olfaction loss

because odorants in the mouth that come from olfactory epithelium and is a big chunk of taste

46

Explain how and why olfaction strongly influences memory

How- Entorhinal cortex and how it goes to the hippocampus
Why- because olfaction is important in recognizing things
ex. dogs sniffing each other's butts