a splitting of water into hydrogen ions, oxygen molecules, and electrons at photosystem II
b method of separating biochemicals using an adsorptive medium and a solvent
c set of reactions comprising carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration steps
d factor in shortest supply which controls the rate of reaction in a multi-step process
e area in which hydrogen ions build up inside a chloroplast
2 Describe the differences between:
a photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide but respiration produces it Photosynthesis uses water but respiration produces it Photosynthesis makes, glucose/sugars, but respiration uses, it/them Photosynthesis makes oxygen but respiration uses, it Photosynthesis uses light energy but respiration uses chemical energy to make ATP Photosynthesis occurs in, plants/green protoctists/algae/cyanobacteria, but respiration occurs in all organisms
2 Describe the differences between: b the light-dependent and the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
Light-dependent, requires light/can only happen in day, but light-independent, does not require light/may also occur in the dark Light-dependent makes ATP but light-independent uses ATP Light-dependent makes reduced NADP but light-independent uses reduced NADP Light-dependent occurs on thylakoid membranes but light-independent occurs in stroma Light-dependent rate is limited by light, intensity/wavelength, but light-independent is limited by, CO2 concentration/temperature
2 Describe the differences between: c cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation.
In cyclic electrons, flow in a circle/end up back at their starting point, but in non-cyclic electrons follow the Z-scheme Cyclic makes ATP only but non-cyclic makes ATP and reduced NADP
ii In addition to the structures seen in Figure 1, a chloroplast also contains DNA and ribosomes. Suggest the role of DNA and ribosomes in this organelle.
(DNA) coding for, gene(s)/protein/enzyme or (ribosome) protein/enzyme, synthesis (Enzymes for production of/proteins for) chlorophyll synthesis/pigment synthesis/photosystem (Protein for) electron , acceptor(s)/carrier(s) ATP synth(et)ase (Enzyme / PSII) for, photolysis/splitting of water (Enzymes for) Calvin cycle/light-independent reaction