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Flashcards in Key Terms 1 Deck (37):
1

Additive effects

Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone

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Adverse effects

Any undesirable bodily effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs.

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Agonist

A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more biochemical receptor types in the body

4

Allergic reaction

An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication

5

Antagonist

A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more biochemical receptor types in the body.

6

Bioavailability

A measure of the extent of drug absorption into systemic circulation for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%).

7

Chemical name

The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug

8

Contraindication

Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable.

9

Drug

Any chemical that affects the physiologic process of a living organism.

10

Drug-induced teratogenesis

The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs.

11

Duration of action

The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response.

12

First-pass effect

The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circualtion through the bloodstream.

13

Generic name

The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. The generic name is generally much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark.

14

Half-life

In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body.

15

Idiosyncratic reaction

An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient.

16

Metabolite

A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug.

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Onset of action

The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing.

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Pharmacodynamics

The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity.

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Pharmacognosy

The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources.

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Pharmacokinetics

The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. It includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs.

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Pharmacology

Broadest term for the study or science of drugs

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Pharmacotherapeutics

The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs.

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Prodrug

An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body

24

Receptor

A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (e.g. drug molecules) and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction.

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Steady state

The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.

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Synergistic effects

Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone

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Therapeutic effect

The desired or intended effect of a particular medication.

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Therapeutic index

The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug.

29

Toxicology

The study of poisons. It deals with the effects of drugs and other chemicals in living systems, their detection and treatments to counteract their poisonous effects.

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Trade name

The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer (also called the proprietary name or brand name).

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Active transport

The active energy-requiring movement of a substance between different tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within cell membranes.

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Diffusion

The passive movement of a substance (e.g. a drug) between different tissues from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.

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Polypharmacy

The use of many different drugs concurrently in treating a patient, who often has several health problems.

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Drug therapy during pregnancy

fetus exposed to many of same substances as mother

first trimester

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Iatrogenic effects

Unintentional adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a physician or other health care professional or by a specific treatment.

36

Legend drugs

Medications that are not legally available without a prescription from a licensed prescriber. Prescription drugs.

37

Over-the-counter drugs

Metications that are legally available without a prescription.