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Flashcards in Key Terms 2 Deck (37):
1

Acute Pain

Pain that is sudden in onset, usually subsides when treated, and typically occurs over less than a 6-week period

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Agonist

A substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response

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Allopurinol

**Drug Profile** A xanthine oxidase inhibitor which prevents uric acid production and is useful in preventing gout attacks

4

Analgesic Ceiling Effect

What occurs when a given pain drug no longer effectively controls a patient's pain despite the administration of the highest safe dosages.

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Analgesics

Medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness.

6

Anesthesia

Loss of the ability to feel pain, resulting from the administration of an anesthetic drug or other medical intervention.

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Anesthetics

Drugs that depress the central nervous system to produce diminution of consciousness, loss of responsiveness to sensory stimulation, or muscle relaxation

8

Antagonist

A drug that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response.

9

Arthritis

Inflammation of the joints

10

Balanced Anesthesia

The practice of using combinations of drugs rather than a single drug to produce anesthesia.

11

Chronic Pain

Pain resulting from any disorder that is often difficult to treat. Typically it is pain that lasts 3-6 months

12

Gate Theory

The most common and well described theory of pain transmission and pain relief.

13

General Anesthesia

A drug-induced state in which the CNS is altered to produce varying degrees of pain relief throughout the body as well as depression of consciousness, skeletal muscle relaxation, and diminished or absent reflexes.

14

Gout

Hyperuricemia; the arthritis caused by tissue build-up of uric acid crystals.

15

Inflammation

A localized protective response stimulated by injury to tissues that serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue

16

Local Anesthetics

Drugs that render a specific portion of the body insensitive to pain at the level of the peripheral nervous system, normally without affecting consciousness. (may also be called regional anesthetics)

17

Malignant Hyperthermia

A genetically linked major adverse reaction to general anesthesia, characterized by a rapid rise in body temperature, as well as tachycardia, tachypnea, and sweating.

18

Morphine Sulfate

**Drug Profile** A naturally occurring alkaloid derived from the opium poppy, is the drug prototype for opioids and narcotics.

19

NSAID's

Non Steroidal Antinflammatory Drugs (abbreviation) - A large, chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesics and also possess antinflammatory and antipyretic activity but are not steroids

20

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

NMBA (abbreviation) - A group of drugs that prevent nerve transmission in certain muscles, leading to paralysis of the muscles. They are often used with anesthetics for surgical procedures

21

Neuropathic Pain

Pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve.

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Opiate Analgesic

Natural narcotic drug containing or derived from opium that binds to opiate receptors in the brain to relieve pain.

23

Opioid Analgesics

Synthetic narcotic drugs that bind to opiate receptors to relieve pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant.

24

Opioid Tolerance

A normal physiologic condition that results from long-term opioid use, in which larger doses of opioids are required to maintain the same level of analgesia and in which abrupt discontinuation of the drug results in withdrawal symptoms.

25

Overton-Meyer Theory

A theory that describes the relationship between the lipid solubility of anesthetic drugs and their potency.

26

Pain Threshold

The level of a stimulus that results in the perception of pain.

27

Pain Tolerance

The amount of pain a patient can endure without its interfering with normal function.

28

Phantom Pain

Pain experienced in the area of a body part that has been surgically or traumatically removed.

29

Physical Dependence

The physical adaptation of the body to the presence of an opioid or other addictive substance.

30

Referred Pain

Pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin.

31

Rheumatism

General term for any of several disorders characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures, especially joints and related structures.

32

Salicylism

The syndrome of salicylate toxicity, including such symptoms as tinnitus (ringing sound in the ears), nausea and vomiting

33

Somatic Pain

Pain that originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints.

34

Succinylcholine

**Drug Profile** The only currently available depolarizing NMBA

35

Superficial Pain

Pain that originates from the skin or mucous membranes.

36

Topical Anesthetics

A class of local anesthetics that are applied directly to the skin and mucous membranes. They consist of solutions, ointments, gels, creams, powders, ophthalmic drops, and suppositories.

37

Visceral Pain

Pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles