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Flashcards in Key Terms Unit 1 Deck (43)
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1

The study of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter

Chemistry

2

Molecule

An entity composed of two or more atoms with the atoms attached to one another in a specific way

3

Property

Any characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity

4

Atom

small building blocks of matter

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Matter

The physical material of the universe; Anything that has mass and occupies space

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States of Matter

Solid, Liquid, and gas

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gas (vapor)

has no fixed volume or shape. Conforms to the volume and shape of its container

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Liquid

has a distinct volume independent of its container but has no specific shape

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Solid

has both a definite shape and a definite volume

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Pure Substance

matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample

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Elements

Substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances

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Compounds

substances composed of two or more elements. They contain to or more kinds of atoms. Ex: water

13

Mixtures

Combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its chemical identity

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Physical Properties

Properties observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance (boiling point, hardness, color, odor)

15

Chemical Properties

describes the way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances. (Flammability)

16

Intensive Properties

Do not depend on the amount of sample being being examined

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Extensive Properties

Depend on the amount of the sample, with two samples being mass and volume

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Physical Change

Changes in physical appearance but not chemical composition

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Changes of State are what type of change?

Physical

20

Chemical Change

A substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.

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Density

The amount of mass in a unit volume of a substance: D=M/V. The units will typically be in g/cm^3 or g/mL

22

cm^3 is equivalent to

mL

23

Precision

A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another

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Accuracy

How closely individual measurements agree with the correct or true value

25

Significant Figures

All digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain ones

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Conversion Factor

A fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units (2.54cm= 1in) Given Unit x Desired Unit/Given Unit= desired unit

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Periodic Table

The arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with elements having similar properties placed in vertical columns

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Periods

Horizontal row of the periodic table

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Groups

Columns of the periodic table

30

Metallic Elements

(except Hydrogen) all of the elements on the left and in the middle of the periodic table