Unit 5 Key Terms, Concepts, and Solubility Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5 Key Terms, Concepts, and Solubility Deck (106)
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1

Solutes

Spread evenly throughout the solution
Cannot be separated from the solvent by filtration
Can be separated by evaporation
Are not visible, but can give a color to the solution

2

The angle between the H's in H2) is

104.5 degrees

3

crystal lattice

An orderly 3-D arrangement of positive and negatice ions

4

insolubility

When the pull of water molecules is not strong enough to overcome the attractions among the ions, the ionic compound will not dissolve.

5

Solubility

When the pull of water molecules is strong enough to overcome the attractions among the ions, water can start to pull the crystal apart. The compound will dissolve.

6

strong electrolytes

Dissociate in water resulting in separate positive and negative ions in the solution

Conduct an electric current in water

7

Nonelectrolytes

Dissove as intact molecules in water
Do not produce ions in water
form solutions that do not conduct an electric current

8

like dissolves like

polar solvents (water, low fw alcohols) dissolve polar compounds and often ionic compounds
Nonpolar solvents (hydrocarbons) dissolve nonpolar compounds
Oil(nonpolar) and water (polar) don't mix

9

metathesis reactions

double-replacement reactions
involve a trading of ion partners
Are driven by:
--The formation of precipitates
--The formation of a molecular liquid(usually water)
--The formation of a molecular gas

10

Precipitation reactions

Metathesis reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble solid(precipitate) in the reaction

11

solibility

a physical property describing how readily a substance will dissolve in a given solvent

12

soluble compounds

Nitrate salts
acetate salts
chlorate and perchlorate
chloride, bromide, and iodide salts (except those containing silver, Lead II, or Mercury I Ions(Hg2^2+)
Sulfate Salts-(except those containing calcium, strontium, barium, mercury I, or Lead II Ions.

13

Insoluble Compounds

Carbonate (CO3) salts (except those containing alkali metal or ammonium Ions)
Phosphate salts – except those containing alkali metal or ammonium ions
Sulfide salts – except those containing ammonium, alkali metal, calcium, strontium, or barium ions
Hydroxides  except those containing ammonium, alkali metal, calcium, strontium, or barium ions

14

Gas-Forming Compounds

Carbonic acid and sulfurous acid are unstable. If a metathesis reaction produces one of these acids, the acid quickly decomposes.
H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)

H2SO3(aq)  H2O(l) + SO2(g)
Na2CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq)  2 NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
not
Na2CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq)  2 NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq)

15

When given two reactants and no products for a possible precipitation reaction, you have to ;

Determine the formulas of the products
Use the solubility rules to predict the states of the products
Balance the equation if a reaction occurs
Write Nrxn if both products are water soluble

16

What writing product formulas, always show the ___ in the formulas first

Cations

17

Molecular Equation

When cations and anions of ionic compounds are shown together forming neutral units

18

Ionic Equations (Total Ionic Equations or Complete Ionic Equations)

WHen an Ionic compound dissolves, and the individual ions will be separated from each other and be surrounded by water molecules. They show soluble ionic compounds and strong acids separated into the ions they contain

19

Spectator Ions

Ions not involved in making new products

20

Net Ionic Equation

When spectator Ions are taken out of an equation

21

When a compound starts with H, it's an _____ when dissolved in water.

Acid

22

The number of Hydrogens in an acid equals the negative charge on the _____

Anion

23

HCl

Hydrocholoric Acid

24

HBr

Hydrobromic Acid

25

HI

Hydroiodic Acid

26

HNO3

Nitric Acid

27

H2SO4

Sulfuric Acid

28

HClO4

Perchloric Acid

29

HClO3

Chloric Acid

30

Ca(OH)2

Calcium Hydroxide