Flashcards in Kidney & Urinary Tract Deck (76):
Summary of Renal Pathology
Functions of kidney
Presentation of renal D
Mechanisms of glomerular/tubular/vascular damage
AKI, CKD, Nephrotic/Nephritic S
List the 5 functions of the kidney
Release hormones: renin, EPO
Fluid & electrolyte balance
A typical presentation of renal disease would be...?
Increased [creatinine], [urea]
Glomerular damage to the kidneys can occur by immunological mediators such as..?
Circulating immune-complexes depositing -- Vasculitis, SLE, Endocarditis, post-infective
Non-immunological damage to the glomerulus can occur by...?
DM - alters
Desposition of ab proteins - amyloid
Ischaemia and toxins are prone to damaging which part of the kidney?
Damage to the glomerulus (blood vessel) can also damage what?
List ways vascular damage can occur in the kidneys.
Glomerular D have unclear aetiology and are often named by microscopic appearence.
Which Glomerular D is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults?
Minimal change disease commonly causes nephrotic syndrome in which group of people?
Post-infective Glomerulonephritis occurs weeks after what?
Strep throat infection
Anti-GBM Disease is anautoimmune attack on glomerulus. T/F?
IgA nephropathy has a typical presentation of...?
Teens/adult + haematuria
Which subtype of IgA nephropathy is often seen in young male + haematuria + rash?
Elderly + AKI = ?
Myeloma or Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Young women + haematuria + facial rash = ?
Adult + AKI + Fever + Myalgia
Nephrotic syndrome is always caused by damage to the glomerulus. What acronym is used for its presentation?
2 complications of Nephrotic syndrome?
Another phrase for Nephritic syndrome is..?
What acronym is used for Nephritic syndrome?
HHOP + AKI
The causes of AKI are split into which categories?
Pre-renal (decreased blood flow)
Increased [creatinine], [urea] + Anuria/Oliguria is typical of what?
Complications of AKI?
Heart failure (fluid overload)
How would you treat AKI?
Treat underlying cause
CKD results from permanently reduced GFR from decreased nephrons. How would the patient present?
Tired/poor appetite (waste)
Renal bone D
The 2 options for managing CKD are...?
Obstruction in the urinary tract can occur from the renal pelvis --> urethral meatus. What are some causes?
Does acute or chronic obstruction in the urinary tract present with PAIN + AKI + anuria?
How does chronic urinary obstruction present initially?
--> Cortical atrophy --> Renal function decline
List 3 consequences of urinary tract obstruction.
For each effect of obstruction state where the obstruction would be:
3. Detrusor atrophy
1. Pelvuic-ureter junction (PUJ) obstruction
Renal stones affect M > F, esp 20-30 yrs. What are 3 ways that they can develop?
Increased Ca2+ in urine
Decreased [citrate] (binds to Ca2+)
What is the classic presentation of renal stones?
Loin --> groin pain
The consequences of renal stones are:
How would you diagnose it?
Classification of renal stones?
Which renal stone displays a staghorn calculi on X-ray?
Two most common cancers in Kidney/Urinary tract?
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Urothelial Cell Carcinoma (UCC)
Most cancer syndromes in RCC are caused by which syndrome?
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
Risk factors for RCC?
Accquired cystic kidney D
This presentation correlates with which cancer?
Palpable abdo mass
Are mets common in RCC?
Where do UCC arise from?
Most common one?
Lining of pelvis/ureter/BLADDER/urethra
Risk factors of UCC?
M > F
Presentation of UCC?
Whats another name for BPH?
Whats the phrase for the symptoms experienced in BPH?
LUTS (Lower urinary tract symptoms)
-Incomplete bladder emptying
95 % of Prostate cancer is...?
What are the risk factors for PC?
Which grading system is used in PC?
Gleason scoring system
Testes 2 main functions?
Testicular tumours (TT) can be divided into 3 group..?
1" = within testes
2" = mets
Haematopoietic (mimic TT, common)
Germ cell TT are a subdivision of 1" TT. State some conditions associated with it.
Prior one in other testes
Disorders of sex dev
Two commontypes of Germ cell TT?
Which Germ cell TT is often asymptomatic or has testicular enlargemen +/- pain?
How would diagnose seminoma?
Gradual testicular swelling +/- pain in boys/young men is characteristic of what?
List inflammatory conditions of the testes
Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis
Sarcoidois of testes
Malakoplakia of testes
List 3 complications of inflammatory conditions of testes.
Testicular atrophy --> failure
Germ cell TT
Name 1" causes of testicular failure/hypogonadism.
What are 2" causes of testicular failure?
80% of UTI are caused by Staph Saprophyticus. T/F?
(also Proteus mirabilis in kidney stones)
Risk factors for UTI?
F > M
Urinary stasis: preg, obstructions
Common cause of paediatric UTIs is?
Cystitis = inflamm of bladder.
Which infection present as LUTS + loin/abdo pain + fever + N/V/diarrhoea
Urethral syndrome = ?
(LUTS without infection)
Significant bacteriuria = ?
> 10^5 cfu/mL
more likely to get UTI
Significant bacteriuria + no UTI symptoms = ?
Who does asymptomatic bacteriuria occur in?
pus in urine BUT no organisms = ?
List causes of sterile pyuria
Inflammation from non-infectious causes:
What are the 4 kinds of investigations that can be done in suspected UTIs?
Urinalysis (Blood, protein, WBC, nitrites)
Microbiology (MSU, CSU, clean, SPA)
When would you use imaging when investigating UTIs?
UTI in male
UTI in child
Treatment for UTI in F/M?
F: 3 days
M: 7 days