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Flashcards in Kidney - structure and function Deck (23)
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1

What is the functional unit of the kidney

Nephron

2

What are the 2 main parts of the nephron

Renal corpuscle (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule)
Renal tubules (prox convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convol. tubule)

3

What is inflammation of the glomerulus called

Glomerulonephritis

4

Glomerular Filtration Barrier

Filtration slits are formed b/w podocyte pedicles and fenestrated endothelial cells with shared basal lamina

5

Glomerular Filtration Barrier selectively filters based on (3)

Size
Electrical Charge (cations are permeable)
Capillary Pressure

6

What are Podocytes

visceral epithelial cells that participate in glomerular filtration

7

The amount of connective tissue in the interstitium increases with

Age and Ischemic damage

8

Funcional nephrons of the kidney can be replaced by ______; this is often increased with inflammation

scar tissue

9

What is the main blood supply to the kidney

renal artery

10

What is the vasculature of the kidney

Renal Atrery --> Interlobar Artery --> Arcuate Artery --> Interlobular Artery --> Aff. Glomerular Arterioles --> Glomerular Capillaries --> Eff. Glomerular Arterioles --> Peritubular Capillary Network

11

Interlobular Arteries - What is there lumen diameter

Small lumen diameter

12

What are Interlobular Arteries susceptible to and why

Susceptible to Infarction
B/c terminal end arteries that do not contain anastomoses

13

Interlobular Arteries branch from ______ and extend to _____

branch from arcuate arteries
extend to cortex of kidney

14

Describe the appearance of a renal infarction (5)

Wedge-shaped
Well demarcated
Dark red or white
Acutely swollen
Chronic contraction (fibrosis)

15

Five basic functions of the kidney

1. Formation of urine to eliminate metabolic waste
2. Acid-base regulation thru reclamation of bicarbonate from the glomerular filtrate
3. Conservation of water (up to 99% of water in glomerular filtrate)
4. Maintenance of normal extracellular potassium ion concentration
5. Control of endocrine function

16

How is maintenance of normal extracell. Potassium ion conc. achieved

1. passive reabsorption in proximal tubules
2. active secretion in the distal tubules under influence of aldosterone **(K+ excretion)**

17

What leads to Sodium retention

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates blood pressure and fluid balance

18

Basic functions of the glomerulus of the kidney (4)

**1. Plasma filtration**
**2. Regulation of blood pressure (renin-angiotension-aldosterone)**
3. Regulation of tubular metabolism
4. Removal of macromolecules from circulation

19

Function of the Proximal Tubules

1. Reabsorption of:
Na+, Cl-, K+, Alb, Glc, Water, Bicarb

20

Function of the Loop of Henle

1. Countercurrent mechanism and Na+/K+-ATPase pumps absorb even more Na+ and Cl- ions from filtrate
2. Produces a hypotonic filtrate that flows into the distal tubule

21

Function of the Distal Tubules

1. Solute concentration gradient promotes water reabsorption (hypotonic filtrate)
2. Aldosterone influences increase Na+ and water reabsorption and K+ excretion

22

Function of the Collecting Ducts

1. Urea gradient promotes water reabsorption
2. Water and Na- reabsorption by Na-/K+-ATPase pumps, also under the influence of ADH

23

Very basic functions of the interstitium of the kidney (3)

1. Provides structural support
2. Produce Erythropoietin (EPO)
3. Interstitial cells/fibroblasts responsible for production of Prostaglandins and immune mediators