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Flashcards in KNOW THIS Deck (121):
1

S/E of b-agonists

Hypokalemia

2

IF: granular pattern of immune complex deposition; LM: diffuse capillary thickening

membranous GN or Diffuse Proliferative GN

3

IF: granular pattern of IC deposition; LM: hyper cellular glomeruli

Acute PSGN

4

IF: deposition of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 in the mesangium

Acute PSGN

5

EM: sub endothelial humps and "tram-track" appearance

Membranoproliferative GN

6

Crescent formation in glomeruli

RPGN

7

LM: segmental sclerosis & hyalinosis

Focal Segmental glomerulosclerosis

8

EM: spiking if the GBM d/t electron-dense sub epithelial deposits

Membranous GN

9

Heparin MOA

enhances Anti-thrombin III activity, blocking thrombin

10

Thrombolytics MOA

activate plasmin to degrade fibrin

11

Warfarin MOA

inhibit epoxide reductase (recycles Vit k)

12

Absence of HGPRTase

Lesch-Nyhan

13

Aldolase B deficiency

Fructose intolerance

14

Cystathionine Synthase deficiency

Homocysteinuria

15

Galactose-1-phosphate UDT deficiency

Galactosemia

16

MR, HSM, cataracts

Galactosemia

17

Tyrosinase deficiency

Albinism

18

Burr cells/Echinocytes are seen w/

kidney disease (uremia) (regular spiking of RBC)

19

Acanthocytes/Spur cells are seen w/

abetalipoproteinemia, Liver ds (irregular RBC spiking)

20

Deficiency of spectrin or ankyrin

Hereditary spherocytosis

21

Target cells are seen w/

"THAL" Thalassemia, HbC, Asplenia, Liver Ds

22

Sideroblasts are seen w/

sideroblastic anemia (iron in mito)

23

"spike and dome" appearance

Membranous GN

24

"Tram-track" appliance of sub endothelial humps

Membranoproliferative GN

25

rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis

ALA synthase (glycine + succinyl-CoA -> delta-ALA)

26

Acute Intermittent Porphyria Sx

abd pain, red urine, polyneuropathy, psych disturbances

27

Acute Intermittent Porphyria - enzyme deficiency?

porphobilinogen

28

Acute Intermittent Porphyria - Tx

Heme & glucose (negative feedback to ALA synthase)

29

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda - Sx

blistering of skin, photosensitive, tea-colored urine, hypertrichosis, facial hyperpigmentation

30

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda - enzyme deficiency

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

31

Lead poisoning Sx

encephalopathy, foot/wrist drop, lead lines on gingiva, abd pain, basophilic stippling

32

Lead poisoning Tx

EDTA/succimer, if severe -> Dimercaprol

33

Lead poisoning MOA

inhibits heme synthesis (blocks ALA dehydratase & Ferrochelatase)

34

Tumors that can cause polycythemia vera

Pheochromocytoma, Renal cell carcinoma, HCC, Hemangioblastoma

35

Shine-Delgarno element

downstream from AUG start codon in prokaryotes, recognizes 16S rRNA & 30S subunit

36

Streptomycin MOA

inhibits the initiation of protein synthesis by binding & distorting 30S ribosome structure

37

Fomepizol MOA

inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase

38

Disulfiram MOA

inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

39

Order of the speed of conduction w/in the heart

Fast->Slow: Purkinje -> Atrial mm. -> Venricular mm. -> AV node

40

Pancoast tumors often compress

brachial plexus to cause I/L shoulder pain & cervical sympathetic chain to cause Horner's syndrome

41

Pancoast tumor origin

Squamous cell carcinoma or Adenocarcinoma

42

Tumor w/ high thymidine uptake suggest

high DNA synthesis -> high grade

43

Azoles MOA

inhibit the synthesis of Ergosterol by the fungal cytochrome P450 enzymes

44

Auer rods

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

45

Causes of Vitamin B12 def

low intake, pernicious anemia, celiacs, Diphyllobothrium latum

46

Hexokinase v Glucokinase

Hexokinase is found in most cells (low Km, high affinity)
Glucokinase is found in hepatocytes & b-cells (high Km, high Vmax)

47

Pyruvate dehydrogenase cofactors

Thiamine, Lipoic acid, CoA, FAD, NAD+

48

Substrate & cofactor for GABA production

Glutamate + B6

49

Hb Barts

4 gamma globin chains -> fatal

50

Tx of hemochromatosis

Deferoxamine

51

Orotic aciduria - enzyme deficiency

UMP synthase

52

Orotic aciduria - Sx

megaloblastic anemia, no hyperammonemia

53

RLS of beta-oxidation of fatty acids

Carnitine Acyltransferase-1

54

Dx test for Hereditary spherocytosis

Osmotic fragility test

55

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria - deficiency

missing CD55 & CD59 -> complement attacks RBCs

56

Cold Agglutinins

IgM production d/t EBV, Mycoplasma --> RBC lysis

57

Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell pt

Salmonella

58

Tx for Sickle Cell pt

Hydroxyurea

59

Warm Agglutinins

IgG production d/t Virus, Lupus, Malignancy, Congenital immune abnormality --> RBC lysis

60

Infectious agents that may cause brown gallstones

E. coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, O. sinensis

61

Enzyme released by injured hepatocytes that may cause brown gallstones

b-glucuronidase

62

7a-hydroxylase MOA

converts cholesterol to bile acids (reducing the chance of gallstones)

63

Desmolase MOA

breaks C-C bonds, plays a role in respiration and fermentation

64

Esophageal ulcerations in immunocompromised pt is caused by

CMV

65

Polyuria that resolves w/ Vasopressin

Central Diabetes Insipidus

66

Red urine in the morning

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

67

HTN + hypokalemia + metabolic acidosis

Hyperaldosteronism

68

Fever + night sweats + weight loss

TB, Lymphoma

69

nystagmus + scanning speech + intention tremor

Multiple Sclerosis

70

vWF MOA

binds exposed collagen to GpIb on platelets

71

Platelet activation results in secretion of

ADP, PDGF, fibrinogen, serotonin, lysosomal enzymes, TBXA2, Ca2+, thrombin

72

Gp2b/3a MOA

platelets after activation -> binds fibrinogen

73

ITP MOA

Ab to Gp2b/3a -> destruction of platelets

74

ITP Tx

Steroids, IVIG, splenectomy

75

ITP Sx

microhemorrhages, nose bleeds, petechiae, inc bleeding time

76

TTP MOA

def in ADAMTS13 -> platelet aggregation -> thrombosis

77

Muscle cramps + dark urine following exercise

McArdle Disease

78

ADAMTS13 def

TTP: widespread thrombosis d/t vWF -> thrombocytopenia

79

Glanzman Thrombasthenia - defective

Gp2b/3a -> abnormal platelet aggregation -> inc bleeding time

80

vWF Disease - MOA

defective vWF -> inc bleeding time & prolonged PTT

81

vWF Tx

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

82

Bernard-Soulier Disease - defective ?

Gp1b -> inability to bind platelets to vWF on collagen

83

Bernard-Soulier Disease - Sx

inc bleeding time, enlarged platelets

84

DIC

widespread activation of clotting, inc bleeding time, PT, PTT, D-dimer, & low platelets & fibrin

85

Triad of HUS Sx

Hemolysis, renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia

86

Pentad of TTP Sx

Hemolysis, renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia, Neuro Sx, Fever

87

DIC causes

obstetric complication, trauma, sepsis, pancreatitis, malignancy, tranfusion

88

Fructose Intolerance - deficiency of

Aldolase B

89

Essential Fructosuria - deficiency of

Fructokinase

90

Classic Galactosemia - deficiency of

Galactose-1-phosphate UDP

91

Thyroid cells w/ optically clear cytoplasm "orphan annie nuclei"

Papillary carcinoma

92

Anemia w/ hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia

93

Eczema + recurrent infections + thrombocytopenia

Wiskott-Aldrich

94

Hemosiderinuria + thrombosis

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

95

Most common lymphoma in adults

Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

96

Most common lymphoma in children

Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

97

Reed-sternberg cells are seen w/

Hodgkin Lymphoma

98

Lymphoma assoc w/ Long-term Celiac Ds

Intestinal T-cell

99

Starry sky appearance

Burkitt Lymphoma

100

Lymphoma assoc w/ Sjogren syndrome, Hashimoto thyroiditis, H. pylori

Marginal Cell MALToma

101

Focal myocardial inflammation w/ multinucleate giant cells

Aschoff bodies seen in Rheumatic Fever

102

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic globules near nucleus in liver

Mallory Bodies

103

Onion skinning of periosteum

Ewing Sarcoma

104

Pseudopalisading tumor arrangement

Glioblastoma

105

Elevated serum uric acid

gout, Lesch-Nyhan, Myeloproliferative disease

106

Inherited defect in tubular amino acid transport

Hartnup disease, Cystinuria

107

Deficiency in homogentisic acid oxidase

Alkaptonuria

108

Blocked degradation of branched chain amino acids

Maple Syrup urine disease

109

atrophic glossitis, iron-deficient anemia, esophageal webs

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

110

HbH

seen in alpha-thalassemia w/ 3 allele deletions -> beta-globins form tetramers (HbH)

111

Lead poisoning inhibits

ferrochelatase, ALA dehydratase, rRNA degradation enzyme --> impaired heme synthesis & basophilic stippling

112

Sideroblastic anemia - deficiency of

ALA synthase (X-linked)

113

Tx for Sideroblastic anemia

pyridoxine

114

t(14,18)

Follicular Lymphoma (activation of Bcl2)

115

t(11;14)

Mantle Cell Lymphoma (activation of Cyclin D1)

116

Glomus tumor

sensitive tumor under nail bed originated from modified smooth muscle cells that control thermoregulation

117

Carbolfuschin staining

Acid-fast stain (mycobacteria, nocardia) retains stain d/t my colic acid content

118

Enteropeptidase activates

Trypsinogen---> Trypsin (essential for protein digestion)

119

t(9,22)

Philadelphia chromosome: CML bcr-abl

120

t(8;14)

Burkitt Lymphoma (c-myc activation)

121

T(15,17)

AML M3 type (retinoid acid receptor)