Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (39):
1

Hormones that use cAMP Signaling Pathway

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, b-hCG, MSH, GnRH, CRH, PTH, Calcitonin, Glucagon, V2

2

Hormones that use cGMP Signaling Pathway

NO, ANP

3

Hormones that use IP3 Signaling Pathway

GnRH, TRH, Oxytocin, V1

4

Hormones that use Steroid Receptor Signaling Pathway

Sex hormones, Glucocorticoids, Aldosterone, TH, Vitamin D

5

What hormones increases blood glucose levels & decreases protein synthesis?

Glucocorticoids

6

Oxytocin is produced in

Paraventricular nucleus of the Hypothalamus
-> Posterior Pituitary

7

ANH is secreted from

atria of the heart

8

Vasopressin is produced in

Supraoptic nucleus of the Hypothalamus
-> Posterior Pituitary

9

Calcitonin is secreted from

Parafollicular cells of the thyroid

10

Glucocorticoids are secreted from

Zona fasciculata of Adrenal Cortex

11

Glucagon is secreted from

alpha-cells of the pancreas

12

Insulin secreted from

beta-cells of the pancreas

13

Epi & NE are secreted from

Chromaffin cells of the Adrenal Medulla

14

Somatostatin is secreted from

delta-cells of the pancreas

15

Mineralcorticoids are secreted from

zona glomerulosa of Adrenal Cortex

16

Mineralcorticoids are secreted from

zona glomerulosa of Adrenal Cortex

17

ADH Functions

increases H2O permeability in the collecting duct (decrease urine volume) & vasoconstriction (increase BP)

18

ADH is released in response to

Nicotine, Opiates, High serum osmolarity, low BP

19

ADH release is inhibited by

EtOH, ANF, low Serum osmolarity, high BP

20

Oxytocin is released in response to

cervical dilation & suckling

21

Oxytocin release is inhibited by

EtOH, stress

22

POMC is cleaved into

ACTH, MSH, Lipotropin, b-endorphins

23

Why would Primary Adrenal Insufficiency cause hyperpigmentation?

low cortisol -> increased release of ACTH from POMC (increases MSH release)

24

Hyperprolactinoma Sx

Hypogonadism - infertility, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, bitemporal hemianopia

25

Prolactin release is stimulated by

TRH, nipple stimulation, stress

26

Prolactin release is inhibited by

Dopamine

27

Tx for Prolactinoma

Bromocriptine (DA agonist)

28

Somatostatin function

reduces BF to GIT, reduces pancreatic enzyme secretion, reduces hormone secretion from CNS & PNS

29

Octreotide is a

Somatostatin analog

30

Octreotide is used to Tx

Pituitary excess, GI endocrine excess, reduce splanchnic BF

31

Sheehan Syndrome

post-partum hemorrhage infracting the ant. pituitary -> hypopituitarism -> inability to breastfeed, amenorrhea, cold intolerance

32

Acromegaly & Gigantism

GH excess -> coarse facial features, large tongue, hands, feet, deep voice (children are tall)

33

Which hormones share the same alpha subunit?

LH, FSH, TSH, b-hCG

34

Empty Sella

sella turcica is replaced by an empty space -> often ASx or may have pituitary deficiencies

35

Empty Sella

sella turcica is replaced by an empty space -> often ASx or may have pituitary deficiencies

36

What effect on pituitary hormones can antipsychotics have?

DA antagonists -> increase Prolactin levels

37

What effect on pituitary hormones can antipsychotics have?

DA antagonists -> increase Prolactin levels

38

What effect on pituitary hormones can antipsychotics have?

DA antagonists -> increase Prolactin levels

39

What effect on pituitary hormones can antipsychotics have?

DA antagonists -> increase Prolactin levels