Flashcards in L10 - Child Maltreatment and Victimology Deck (90):
What are two forms of abuse?
Active abuse and passive neglect
What are three types of abuse?
- Physical violence
- Psychological violence
- Sexual violence
What are two examples of active, physically violent abuse and what overarching name could be used to describe it?
- Non-accidental injury
- Forced coercion and restraint
What does CPA stand for?
Child Physical Abuse
What might be an example of passive, physical neglect?
Poor healthcare - not looking after the child enough to help maintain their physical health. i.e not taking them to doctor's appointments, etc.
Every form of abuse and neglect induces what?
An element of emotional abuse
What is active, psychologically violent abuse?
- Intimidation and emotional abuse.
- Witnessing someone being violent towards a parent.
What is passive, psychological neglect?
Lack of affection and emotional neglect
What is found in people who have been emotionally neglected?
They don't have a coherent sense of self, if they even have a sense of self at all.
Name 7 forms of active, sexual abuse.
- Sexual assault
- Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
- Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
- Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
What does FGM stand for?
Female Genital Mutilation
What does CSA stand for?
Child Sexual Abuse
What does CSE stand for?
Child Sexual Exploitation
The greatest risk to children in cases of sexual abuse are from who?
Family members and acquaintances.
Child Sexual Abuse by strangers is much less common.
What is Child Sexual Exploitation?
Young people who receive something in return for their involvement in a sexual act.
What would passive, sexual abuse involve?
- Failure to protect children from sexual abuse
- Promoting or facilitating CSE.
What is the incidence of concern for child sexual abuse (leading to investigations) according to the Department for Education (2015)?
12.4 per 10,000 of the population.
What is the incidence of child protection plans (Department for Education 2015)?
42.1 per 1000 of the population.
According to the Department for Education (2015), what was the rate of second referrals?
15.8% had to be referred for a second time.
What are the rates for each type of abuse suffered where Child protection plans are deployed.
32.8% emotional abuse;
9.9% physical abuse
4.6% sexual abuse
What did Stoltenborgh et al., (2013) find about the reporting of CPA compared to official records?
Stoltenborgh et al's (2013) meta analysis of 111 studies showed that self reported physical abuse was 75 times greater than official records.
According to Pilkington and Kremer (1995), what percentage of females report they have ever been sexually abused?
According to Pilkington and Kremer (1995), what percentage of female students report they have ever been sexually abused?
According to Pilkington and Kremer (1995), what percentage of females in certain community samples report they have ever been sexually abused?
According to Pilkington and Kremer (1995), what percentage of females in a clinical setting report they have ever been sexually abused?
According to Sethi et al., (2013), what percentage of girls and boys have suffered from CSA?
Girls - 13.4%
Boys - 5.7%
According to Sethi et al., (2013), what percentage of girls and boys have suffered from CPA?
According to Sethi et al., (2013), what percentage of girls and boys have suffered from emotional abuse?
According to Sethi et al., (2013), what percentage of girls and boys have suffered from physical neglect?
According to WHO (2014), what proportion of adults report childhood physical abuse?
A quarter of all adults.
According to WHO (2014), what proportion of women report having been sexually abused as a child?
1 in 5
According to WHO (2014), what proportion of women have been a victim of physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner at some point in her lifetime?
1 in 3
According to WHO (2014), what proportion of older adults report abuse in the last month?
1 in 17
According to WHO (2014), what is the rate of recurrent maltreatment?
According to UNICEF (2014), what are the two most common ages to die from abuse?
- 4-5 years
According to UNICEF (2014), who is most likely to be the cause of death for 4-5 year olds?
According to UNICEF (2014), who is most likely to be the cause of death for adolescents?
According to Kleevens & Leeb (2010), what are the most likely reasons for why parental abuse leads to death?
Mothers - severe neglect
Fathers - physical assaults
What are some (6) common outcomes in serious case reviews, in terms of why the maltreatment was not spotted or dealt with?
- Poor identification of risk
- Agencies working in isolation
- ‘too willing to believe mother’s accounts’
- Too little significance attached to mother’s childhood experience of neglect and alleged abuse
- No checks on the males living in the house
- Staffing issues
Describe the rate of intergenerational maltreatment.
Rate of intergenerational cycle of maltreatment is actually relatively low (Widom, 1989; Dixon, Hamilton-Giachritsis & Browne, 2005)
Name 3 single factor causes of maltreatment
- Battered child syndrome (Kempe and Kempe
- Psychopathology/mental illness
- Own experience of victimisation
Widom, Czaja, and DuMont, (2015) suggests evidence for intergenerational transmission of maltreatment because of which statistic?
21.4% of abused parents referred to CP services vs 11.7% of non-abused
How would evolutionary theories describe the risk of child maltreatment?
Abuse is more likely if parents are not biologically related.
This has been proven/suggested to be wrong (Hamilton and Browne, 1999).
Which socio-biological and socio-cultural factors might influence maltreatment?
- Role of poverty
- Lack of social support
- Response to social and environmental factors.
What did Gil's (1970) Special Victims Model suggest might influence maltreatment?
- Developmental victimology (some children are more likely to be scapegoats for CSA)
- Developmental stage
According to Egeland et al., (2002), how might different attachments influence maltreatment?
Insecure attachments are a risk factor for abuse
Secure attachments act as a buffer for abuse.
What are the 5 systems derived from Bronfenbrenner's (1979) multi-factor ecological model?
- Individual (child characteristics)
- Microsystem (groups that directly impact on the child)
- Mesosystem (interactions between the different microsystems)
- Exosystem (systems that have an indirect influence on the child, e.g. parental work environment)
- Macrosystem (wider societal and cultural beliefs and norms)
According to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems model (1979), what are 3 child risk factors for maltreatment?
According to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems model (1979), what are 7 parental risk factors for maltreatment?
- Young age
- Single parent
- Unwanted pregnancy
- Exposure to violence
- Substance abuse
- Poor parenting skills
- Physical or mental illness
According to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems model (1979), what are 3 family risk factors for maltreatment?
- Family size
- Social support
According to Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems model (1979), what are 5 community/society risk factors for maltreatment?
- Lack of child protection laws
- Decreased value of children
- Social inequalities
- Violence (media, war, crime)
- Cultural norms
How does Wolfe's (1999) transitional model explain increased risk of maltreatment?
Expectations of children are too high, leading to self-viewed inadequacy by parents and therefore increased stress.
What are the 4 aspects that can influence maltreatment in Cicchetti & Rizley's (1981) ecological-transactional model?
- Potentiating factors
- Transient challengers
- Protective factors
- Transient buffers
What are potentiating factors according to Cicchetti & Rizley's (1981) ecological-transactional model?
Ongoing vulnerability/long term factors, such as a history of abuse, which increase the risk of maltreatment
What are transient challengers according to Cicchetti & Rizley's (1981) ecological-transactional model?
Short-term stressors, within environment, may temporarily increase risk (e.g., unemployment) of maltreatment
What are protective factors according to Cicchetti & Rizley's (1981) ecological-transactional model?
Long term/relatively permanent factors which decrease the risk of maltreatment.
What are transient buffers according to Cicchetti & Rizley's (1981) ecological-transactional model?
More temporary factors such as a new job, improved marital relationships, child in more positive developmental phase, which decrease the risk of maltreatment.
How does chronicity affect child outcome in cases of maltreatment, according to English et al., (2005)?
If there are gaps in the abuse, the child may have periods of resilience and developmental changes, possibly decreasing the risk of future maltreatment.
What did Hamilton et al., (2002) find about recurrent maltreatment and the violence of offending?
Those who had committed violent/sexual offences had much higher rates of recurrent maltreatment (74%) than those who had committed non-violent offences (33%).
According to (Dixon, Browne & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2009), what is the cause of maltreatment more about?
The absence of protective factors
Werkele et al., (2007) suggested what about socio-economic disadvantage and maltreatment?
If one suffered from 3 or more different types of socio-economic disadvantages, they were 44 times more likely to be neglectful of their child.
The manifestation of positive adaptation despite significant life adversity (Luthar, 2003)
Describe the typical characteristics of resilience.
- Display of average functioning
- Lack of pathology/trauma symptoms
- Behavioural, educational and emotional regulation
According to Walsh et al., (2010), what can make rates of resilience/competence increase?
When only one domain is studied. E.g. for students, 97% were found to be competent/educationally resilient.
According to Cicchetti & Rogosch, (1997) and Flores et al., (2005), what are the differences in resilience between maltreated and non-maltreated samples?
People who have not been maltreated have higher levels of resilience (17-35%) compared to people who have been maltreated (9-18%)
What were Bolger & Patterson's (2003) 4 year follow-up two definitions/measures of high competence/resilience?
- 1 standard deviation above the average in all domains for 1) one year 2) 4 years
- Above the median for 4 years
Bolger & Patterson's (2003) 4 year follow-up find about the rates of resilience in their study?
For those who were 1 SD above the mean were 9% competent in any one year and only 1% sustained competence across the full 4 years.
For those who were above the median for the 4 years, 21% were competent (normal range) and only 5% were resilient.
What does TA-CSA stand for?
Technology Assisted - Child Sexual Abuse
What is TA-CSA?
Any use of technology that assists in child sexual abuse
What is commissioning in relation to TA-CSA?
An individual in one country, say the UK, will stream and record videos of abuse (commission them) and send them to another member in another country, say the Philippines.
What did Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle & Beech, (2017) find about the percentage of CSA that is technologically assisted?
43-63% of victims had an online element to their abuse.
What are the three different levels of vulnerability to TA-CSA and the differing outcomes of individuals?
- Multiple long term risks. Few protective factors and vulnerable online and offline. Have the most psychological problems and the most difficulty recovering after abuse, due to their poor support network.
- Trigger factors. People that are relatively well supported and protected, but do still have some risk factors. Event occurs which triggers the loss of protective factors, increasing vulnerability to abuse. These individuals may have some difficulties post-abuse, but are mainly social ones.
- Online behavioural risks. People who have few risk factors and many protective factors, and who take many risks online. After suffering abuse, these people show very minimal obvious problems.
According to Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle and Beech (2017), how does the level of abuse compare when it is conducted offline and online?
TA-CSA is no less impactful than abuse that occurs exclusively offline.
Which additional elements have to be contended with when dealing with TA-CSA?
According to Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle and Beech (2017), what was the incidence of severe depression and anxiety in their sample?
18/30 were severely depressed
20/30 were severely anxious
According to Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle and Beech (2017), how many participants met the criteria for PTSD?
According to Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle and Beech (2017), how many participants had suicidal thoughts?
According to Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hanson, Whittle and Beech (2017), how many participants were sexually re-victimised?
What does IPV stand for?
Intimate partner violence
What is the difference between incidence and prevalence of maltreatment?
Incidence refers to the number of cases reported within a set period.
Prevalence is the number of individuals who retrospectively report maltreatment during their childhood.
What are the 3 main reasons for variation in CSA rates in the literature?
- sample selection
In the US, France and the UK, what is the most common ages for death to result from maltreatment?
Children under 5
The greatest percentage of deaths in infants under 1 year old is due to what?
- Head injury
- Physical battering
- Severe neglect
What did Feiring, Taska, & Chen (2002) find about differences in the types of symptoms experienced by boys and girls after being abused?
Boys are more likely to show externalising behaviours (aggression and conduct disorder), while girls are more likely to show internalising behaviours (depression)
What did Hussey, Chang and Kotch, (2006) find about the symptoms that might increase after all forms of abuse?
Sufferers would experience at least 8/10 adolescent health risks, including depression, binge drinking, marijuana use, inhalant use and serious fights.
When is the greatest risk of re-referral according to Hindley, Ramachandani and Jones (2006)?
The first 12 months after the first referral.
What are two possible mechanisms leading to internalising and externalising issues after experiencing abuse?
- Poorer executive function
- Dysregulation of the emotion and stress pathways, as a result of cortisol production.
According to DePrince, Weinzeirl and Combs, (2009), why might poor executive function, caused by abuse, lead to difficulties?
Working memory and processing speed decreases, leading to lower academic performance and also problems with social and interpe rsonal functioning.
What does ICM stand for?
Intergenerational Cycle of Maltreatment