Flashcards in L5 - Cyber Crime Deck (25):
Any activity that uses technology and which brings about some negative effect to an individual or group's property or belongings.
What are the 3 main types of Cybercrime according to Kirwan and Power (2012)?
- Internet enabled
- Internet specific
- Crimes in the virtual world
What are internet enabled Cybercrimes?
Ones that use technology as a tool to commit existing crimes. Easy to prosecute because laws exist on them already.
What are internet-specific Cybercrimes?
Crimes which do not exist offline. E.g. Hacking, cyber vandalism, domain hijacking, virus dissemination. Legal ambiguity.
What are crimes in the virtual world?
When things happen to a person's avatar/online assets. May have cross-over effect on offline life.
What did Suler's (2004) Online Disinhibition Effect consist of?
6 factors which could promote disinhibition.
What were Suler's (2004) 6 factors which might promote disinhibition?
- Dissociative Anonymity
- Solipsistic Introjection
- Dissociative Imagination
- Minimising authority
What is Dissociative Anonymity according to Suler (2004)?
The way we have a hidden identity online - separate to our offline identity
What is Invisibility according to Suler (2004)?
Visually cannot see the other person. Can't have social feedback.
What is Asynchronicity according to Suler (2004)?
Altercations can be stretched out and users have more control of responses. Something nasty might be said, and then the user may leave and not suffer from any consequences.
What is Solipsistic Introjection according to Suler (2004)?
Reading another person's online messages in a particular voice that represents how you think they would sound. Creates comfort, thinking that you are talking to yourself, increasing disinhibition.
What is Dissasociative Imagination according to Suler (2004)?
Online world is a fantasy space with differing rules to real life. People can enter and leave whenever they like.
What is Minimising Authority according to Suler (2004)?
Feeling that there is no real threat from authority online. Even when there are moderators, they can kick you out, but you can just create another account/ID.
What are 2 critiques of the online disinhibition effect?
- It blames the internet for the crimes that occur on it --> surely it's about the people and how/why they're using it like they are.
- Not everyone will use the internet for toxic reasons.
What did Tobin, Vanman, Verreynne, & Saeri, (2013) find about social ostracism?
That when people were prevented from either a) posting and sharing on facebook b) receiving feedback from their posts on facebook, they had lower levels of belonging and meaningful existence.
What is the proteus effect according to Yee and Bailenson (2009)?
The way that the features of one's avatar may change the user's/owner's behaviour, due to a possible connection to the avatar.
What did Taylor (2002) find about avatar attachment?
Avatars can mimic personal boundaries and space, as if it was the real world. Some feel more comfortable in their avatar's 'skin' than their own.
What did Kirwan (2009) find about who should be punished for virtual crimes?
Players thought it should be the online character/avatar that should be punished, rather than the user controlling them.
According to the 2012 National Cyber Security Alliance, what percentage of Cybercrime is directed at small to midsized businesses (SMBs)?
Of the SMBs targeted by Cybercrime, what percentage go bust within 6 months?
What is the contagion effect according to Pirkis et al., (2009)?
Increases in media coverage results in more suicides, especially when it is a celebrity suicide being covered.
What did Pirkis et al., (2009) find about internet use and suicide?
The higher the internet usage, the higher the rate of suicide.
In Horgan and Sweeney's (2010) paper, what percentage of University students had searched for information about mental health?
In Horgan and Sweeney's (2010) paper, what percentage of University students said they would use the internet for mental health support if/when they needed it?