Flashcards in L9 - Female Offending Deck (47):
Describe the trend of prison sentences for female offenders.
Disproportional rise in female prison sentences in the last few decades
Compare the recidivism rates between men and women.
- Non violent crimes = approximately the same rates of men (Blanchette & Brown, 2006)
- Violent crimes = approximately half that of men (7% vs. 14%; Bontaet al. (2003).
- Sexual crimes = much lower than men (1.5% vs. 13.5%; Cortoni et al., 2010).
What are the 3 most common crime types for female offenders according to the FBI (2010)?
- Driving under the influence
- Drug abuse violations
What are the only offences committed more by women than men according to the Home Office, (2006)?
- Education act offences (not sending kids to school)
- Non payment of TV license
Female offenders are under-represented in what, according to the Home Office, (2006)?
Professional and organised crime
According to Campbell (2002), what are the main differences between the reasons that men and women offend?
- are more responsive to their/their families needs (rather than hedonistic pleasures)
- offenders view it as a form of work
- tend to commit more frequent offences with smaller returns
- attempt to conceal their offending, whereas men are likely to advertise it in order to gain status and respect.
According to Crick & Grotpeter, (1995), women are more likely than men to use which aggression methods?
Covert aggression (online bullying, verbal/non verbal aggression)
Blanchette and Brown (2006) found what significant difference in the people that men and women are aggressive towards?
Women are significantly more likely to act aggressively to someone that they know/have an existing relationship with, rather than a stranger.
(relational violence vs stranger violence)
What are two reasons for the perceived rise in female offending rates?
- Female crime reporting and convicting may have changed in recent years (Carrington, 2006; Worrall 2008)
- Decrease in tolerance for female violence (Chesney‐Lind & Pasko, 2013; Zahn et al., 2010).
What did Brinkworth (1994) suggest about a particular type of cocky, feminist aggressive female offenders?
They 'know' the CJS, so try to play it by dressing smart and acting innocent.
According to Alder (1975), what lead to an increase in 'masculine' crimes committed by women?
The women’s liberation movement, which led to more confidence, higher levels of self-esteem and self-sufficiency.
What did Lombroso suggest about the traits of females that increases their propensity for criminality?
They are immature, sharing traits with children, including vengefulness, jealousy, and cruelty. Every woman naturally has a moral deficiency; she is a semi-criminal
What did Lombroso suggest might stop females from offending?
Their criminal characteristics can be subdued by religion, maternity, sexual frigidity, or lesser intelligence.
What does Hirschi's (1969, 2002) Social Control Theory suggest?
That external factors, namely the strength of our bonds to society, mediate our suppression of criminal urges, which we all have.
What are the 5 factors that Hirschi's (1969, 2002) Social Control Theory suggests mediates offending?
- Attachment (emotional bond to family/friends/teachers etc...)
- Commitment (aspirations for employment/education)
- Involvement (conventional activities/voluntary employment etc...)
- Belief (rationalizing criminal conduct)
- Conformity (to societal norms)
What did Alarid, Burton and Cullen (2000) find about gender differences in the social control theory?
Largely supported the notion of a lack of gender differences in social control theory, with two exceptions:
- Marital attachment was uncorrelated with crime for men but correlated for women (married women more likely to self-report that they commit crime – drugs/property offences)
- Lack of parental attachment was particularly strongly correlated with violent crime for women
What are 3 aspects of Social Learning Theory in relation to crime?
- Crime is learned (punishment and reward shape behaviour, i.e. Conditioning)
- We learn through imitation/modelling
- More likely to commit crime if exposed to/associates with criminal others
How did Burgess and Akers (1966) explain the lack of female offending, using Social Learning Theory?
There are very few female role models who are offenders.
What did Benda (2005) find about female offending and criminal partners?
Having a criminal partner is related to offending more in females than males.
What is Agnew's (1992) General Strain Theory?
Everyday stress can cause negative emotions such as anger
How does Agnew (1997) try to explain the gender gap in crime using her General Strain Theory?
Emotional responses to everyday strain results in aggression in males and depression in females.
Hay's (2003) test of General Strain Theory revealed what differences between genders, that helps explain why males react aggressively to general strain and why females become more depressive?
- Males were more likely to report physical punishment from parents for rule-breaking
(may explain further delinquent behaviour)
- Females experience significantly higher levels of guilt when confronted with family strain,
- Family strain and anger had more profound effects on males than on females
Name 7 risk factors that are significantly more prevalent in violent female offenders than violent male offenders.
- Abuse and witnessing violence
- Parental factors
- Broken family
- Lack of commitment to schooling and lower levels of academic achievement.
- Lower levels of emotional/affective empathy.
- Lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of guilt
Name 4 frequent female pathways to offending as suggested by Brennan et al., (2012)?
- The “normal functioning” drug/property pathway
- The battered women/victimization pathway
- The poor marginalized antisocial pathway:
- The antisocial aggressive pathway
What is the “normal functioning” drug/property pathway for female offenders?
Appear to be adolescent-limited offenders who got dragged into ongoing criminality during adult years due to drug use and parental stresses.
What is the battered women/victimization pathway for female offenders?
Involves women with severe child and adult histories of physical and sexual victimization, chronic drug problems, unsafe housing, and chaotic lives.
What is the poor marginalized antisocial pathway for female offenders?
Characterized by women who have educational or vocational deficits and poor employment skills.
Their main criminogenic needs relate to their links to an antisocial subculture, antisocial peers, higher family crime, residence in higher crime areas, and frequent drug trafficking.
What is the antisocial aggressive pathway for female offenders?
Women in this pathway are characterized by lifelong histories of sexual and physical victimization, high rates of placement in foster care during childhood, antisocial
significant others, hostile antisocial personality, mental health issues, and homelessness.
What is adolescent-delayed onset of offending?
- Similar risk factors to early-onset/life-course males but onset of antisocial behaviour in adolescence which continues to adulthood.
- Additional general adjustment problems in adulthood
Why might the development of offending behaviours differ between genders?
- Socialisation processes that discourage girls from adopting externalising behaviours (i.e., depression rather than aggression).
- Protective factors more prevalent in females than in males (i.e., better school achievement and higher levels of parental supervision.
According to Plugge et al., (2006) which statistic refers to the increased likelihood of mental health concern in female prisoners?
Female prisoners are 5 times more likely to have a mental health concern than women in the general population.
Which stat enforces the claim that women account for a disproportionate prevalence of self harm in prison?
28% of all self harm incidents are accounted for by female prisoners, who only make up 5% of the prison population.
According to the Prison Reform Trust (2013), of all the women sent to prison, what are the rates of the main mental disorders suffered?
- 37% say they have attempted suicide at some time in their life.
- 51% have severe and enduring mental illness.
- 47% a major depressive disorder.
- 6% psychosis
- 3% schizophrenia
The majority of treatment programmes for female prisoners have been what?
Adapted from treatment programmes for male prisoners, and is based on literature on male prisoners.
Name 3 responsivity issues in relation to female offenders after they have been released.
- Women tend to have greater needs for healthy
connections to significant others (e.g. children and
family) and the broader community.
- Their ability to deal with stress is greatly improved when supportive social networks are available.
- They typically require much more extensive support
than men to improve their general functioning and
manage stress (Rumgay, 2004).
What does CARE stand for (Ministry of Justice, 2012)?
Choices, Actions, Relationships and Emotions
What is CARE (Ministry of Justice, 2012)?
The only accredited (2010/11) women-specific behaviour programme for medium or high risk violent female prisoners who have difficulties with emotional regulation and have needs such as:
- a history of substance misuse
- a history of self-harming or suicidal behaviours
- a personality disorder diagnosis
- past difficulties in accessing or benefiting from help or treatment `
What are WSOs?
Women sexual offenders
What percentage of young women in prison are mothers?
Estimated as 40%
Why might the children of female prisoners live very far away?
There are very few female prisons, so it is often the case that the closest one to their child is still very far away.
What are the 4Ps?
- Predisposing factors
- Precipitating factors
- Perpetuating factors
- Protective factors
Predisposing factors are said to mediate the _____ of an individual?
Precipitating factors are said to be what?
Perpetuating factors are said to _______ offending?
Protective factors are said to act as an offender's what?
What might predispose an individual to psychopathy or predatory violence?
A lack of attachment or bonding