What are the two main traits of pro-social behaviours?
Empathy and Sympathy
Define Empathy and Sympathy
What is the risk of empathy?
Too much empathy can lead to burnout if you need to be empathetic to stressful situations all the time
What is the primary influence on pro-social behaviour?
Parents and socialisation in the family
What would Bandura suggest is important in regards to learning prosocial behaviour from the family?
1. Modelling and Teaching
2. Arranging opportunities for children to use pro-social behaviour
3. Methods of discipline
What is the ideal methods of discipline that parents can use that leads to pro-social behaviour
Authoritative parenting style
pro-social behaviour particularly associcated with reasoning, including pointing out the consequences of childrens behaviour
What biological influences may have lead to pro-social behaviour?
Adaptive behaviour due to evolution
More likely to help = more likely to be helped and therefore survive
Reproduce similar traits in their offspring
What is aggression as defined in psychology
Behaviour that is intended to harm others.
What are the two general classes of aggression?
Reactive: Child is lashing out in response to a percieved threat
Proactive: No environmental stimuli that has triggered the aggressive behaviour
For anti-social behaviour, what are the two conditional factors that may lead to it?
Genetic Predisposition (towards aggression)
Social Learning Experiences
What are the 6 social influences on aggression?
Punitive parenting (especially abuse)
Parental conflict (perhaps due to modelling)
Inconsistent parenting (disrupted attachment styles)
SES (pathways for this are complex)
Media violence (correlation or causation?)
Peers (social influence on behaviour)
When does aggression begin to develop in children?
Approximately 18 months
When aggression first emerges in children, what tends to be the driving factor?
It is goal directed
Aggression tends to be instrumental
When does physical aggression peak in children?
When does it decrease and why?
Peaks at about 2 years.
Decreases afterwards as a result of verbal skills increasing as well as better emotional control
At what age does aggression become relatively stable and is predictive of anti-social behaviour in adulthood?
10 years old.
Aggression in 10 year olds predicts anti-social behaviour and conduct problems in adolescence and adulthood.
What are the 5 stages in Pattersons (1989) model of aggression?
Patterson's aggression model (1989)
Explain Patterson's 1989 model of aggression. (5 stages)
Poor parental discipline/use of punishment leads to child conduct problems
Child conduct problems leads to rejection by peers/formation of similar friendships
Rejection by peers leads to commitment to similarly aggressive peer group
Commitment to similarly aggressive peer group leads to delinquency
Behaviour that is intentionally meant to harm.
What are the two types of bullying?
What are intervention techniques we can use to victims of bullying?
Focus on empowerment for victims
What are intervention techniques we can use to perpetrators of bullying?
Focus on reactive bullying - attribution retraining (why are they bullying and why is it wrong)
What are the five basic principles of school bullying interventions.
For well-being in children, what is the primary factor that they report contributes to well-being?
(the feel safe in their environment)
What are the four types of interventions for pro-social behaviour
What sort of interventions can you do after the age of 3-4 when they are past their initial aggressive behaviour
4. Trauma-based interventions
What are two ways you can use animals to promote pro-social behaviour?
1. Animal assisted therapies
e.g. great for children on autism spectrum disorder to develop social skills and practice those skillsets
Animals can include elements of play and how to play with others
2. Humane education programs
Aimed at increasing empathy and decreasing cycles of abuse
Idea: Increasing empathy through engaging with animals rather than other human beings
What sort of approach does arts/sports/drama use help promote pro-social behaviour?
They are strengths based approaches.
Children select activities they enjoy doing already.
What can arts/sports/drama interventions assist with in terms of childhood development
What is the anger iceburg in regards to childhood motivation and behaviour?
When asking a child how they feel emotionally about a certain situation, they often say they feel angry that X has happened to them.
However, it is more likely the case that there is something deeper (ice underneath) which is what they are actually feeling but finding it hard to name.
How do games/collaboration help develop pro-social behaviour?
Helps with language development
Increase co-operation; collaborative games has been found to have effect on classroom collaboration/prosocial behaviour
They are happy to participate in games so easy to implement
1. What are trauma-based interventions?
2. Who are they aimed at?
1. Interventions built on principles of trauma-informed care
2. Aimed at children (usually) but also adults
e.g. 'trauma informed' yoga; 'trauma informed' art therapy; 'trauma informed' sport etc. to help rewire things that might have happened in the past
What does "SMART" refer to?
Strategies for Manageing Abuse Related Trauma
SMART uses the principles from...
Trauma Informed Care
What is the focus of SMART, what principles is the treatment based off?
Trying to change the environment to settle down emotional responses in children by reinforcing safe environments in the children.
What does this graph refer to?
The biology behind behaviour that has come about due to trauma and what therapies should be focused on changing.
What SMART is based off. Trying to adjust the biology of what is happening to people after trauma.
In SMART what we are trying to do is lower the level where children have their ______ ___ ______ _____
Fight and Flight Response
What are the 8 SMART principles?
Predictable: change is a threat – continuity is important
Responsive: children who have experienced trauma have typically done so at the hands of those not able to see what their impact is
Attuned: children who have experienced trauma often feel that people cant/don’t see what they need
Connecting: a lack of connections with others often means for children a lack of trust in themselves
Translating: children who have experienced trauma often cannot narrate themselves/their lives (cf play therapy)
Involving: children who have experienced trauma often cannot connect to others and need support in doing so and being able to perceive the needs of others
Calming: children needs skills in regulating affect re: fight or flights and appropriate responses – getting ‘into the body’
Engaged: need to develop skills in reciprocity and recognition of others and human beings not just objects
A good interventions should include what 5 things?
2. Strength Based
3. Trauma Informed (if possible)
4. Work with emotional regulation and awarness
5. Work with play