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LO1: list maj regul mechs that contr enz activ (and egs).

-[S] and [P]. isoenz eg GK and HK. some coenz lim avail. accum of prod can comp inhib eg G6P inhib HK.
-allosteric- sigm rate vs [S]. multip su. low affin T state, high R.
allost activs bind outs AS, stabil R, alt conf 1 su=incr bind S, incr affin and rate, shift L. inhibs opp.
-cov modif- post ransl add grps. eg P, acetylat, gamma carboxylat, ubiquitinat, methylat, palmitoylat, myristoylat, ribosyl.
phosphorylat- P from ATP to OH of ser, thr, tyr by kinase. hydrol by phosphatase.
-proteolytic cleav.
- change rate prot synth or deg.


LO2: disc allost props of key regul enz.

-PFK see diags.


LO3: disc concept of enz cascs and use PKs and Pases to reg activ.

- amplif sig by sev orders mag in ms. multip kinases activ by Plat.
-glycog breakd recip regul- casc forms enz to breakd glycog. if gluc high want rev make glycog so P glycog synthase.


LO4: define zymogen and egs.

- zymog=inactiv prot precurs. activ by rem part pp. so not active in wrong place.
- dig enzs synth as zymog in stom and panc eg pepsinogen to pesin by cleav. panc chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen, procarboxypeptiase, proelastase.
- some horms eg insulin.
-blood clott med by casc proteolytic activ= rap and amplif resp.
-dev procs to contrib to tiss remod.
-apop prog cell death med by caspases synth as procaspase.
often master molec eg trypsin
reg often master molec eg trypsin.


LO5: how activat clott casc=format fibrin.

- inrinsic and extrinsic both activ fX. this cleaves prothrombin to active thrmbin 2 chains s-s link. this chops off neg N termin of alpha and beta peps, allows C termin glob doms to interact=aggreg= soft clot non cov elecstat interac, then other cf form cov.
glutamine + lysine x linked by transglutaminase activ by thrombin, amide bonds btw sc's.


LO6: mechs inv in reg clot form and breakd.

- gla resids- COOH added to glutamine in ER by carboxylase. allows interac with sites of dam- exposed Plip. brings cf's togeth. ca x bridge btw neg regs on cf.
-thrombin allost activ- feedb to speed up cofac form. ensures contin clott. enhances activ of fV, fVIII, fXI.
-stop clott proc by rem activ prots/ proteolytic dig/bind inhibs-
localisat prothrombin- dilut cf by blood flow, rem by liv. slow.
dig by protease- eg fVa and VIIIa deg by prot C activ by thrombin.
-specif inhibs- antithrombin III enhanced by heparin bind. v tight bind thrombin and fX.
-inactiv zymog at low conc.
- proteolytic activ amplif sig by cas.
- clot breakd contr by proteolytic activ- fibrinolysis by plasmin breaks into frags. plasmin aciv from plasminogen by tiss plasminogen activator, and streptokinase.