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Flashcards in L9 CT Deck (5)
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LO2: recog foll fibs and CT in photomic, disc anat locat and salient histol feats rel to func.

-elastin fib eg lung. Retic fib eg LN. Mucous CT eg umb cord. Areolar CT loose. Adip tiss. Dermis dense irreg. Tendons dense reg.
-CT classif-
Emb CT- mesent home. Mucous CT umb cord.
CT proper/reg CT- loose/areolar. Dense reg/irreg.
Spec CT- adip, blood, cartil, bone, LT, haemopoietic tiss.
-mesod cells mid emb germ lay and some ectod prolif and mig=mesenchyme. Mat and prolif or pluripotent mesenchyme=var CTs and serous mems and vasc and urogenit sys and musc. Multi potent progenitor.
Mesenchyme tiss HE- cytop proc taper. Lot viscous GS in ECM. Cells sim but diff. Persis in ad= new CT when heal.
Mucous CT- whartons jelly umb cord. Spec gelatine GS occ large intercell sp. Spring mesenchyme. Vein oxy placenta to fetus.


LO3: desc and disc func of ECM eg constit of GS and Coll/retic/least fibs in it.

-pg struc in cartil GS- pg monomer=core prot att to 100 GAG hyaluronic at=Lin aggregs each lot pg monomers. Interwov with netw old fibrils. High dens neg charges on GAG attr H2O=hydrant gel and attr cations.
-loose/dense- composit of cells, fibres, GS.
Loose/areolar occ widely as superfic fascia and as investing fascia arnd nerves and BV. Retic CT= br netw=frame BM, LOs. Adip fat cells energ reserve, insul and shock abs. Hyaluronic even pg aggregs. Eosinophil, fibrous, adip, plasma cell, Mac, lymphoc, endoth, mast.
Dense- dense reg eg tendon, lig, aponeuroses. Dense irreg eg dermis, deep fascia, jnt caps, organ caps.
-Coll and reticulin-
1/4 to 1/3 bod prot. Irrev hydrolases=gelatin. 28 types.
T1 90%. Fibrob=fibres=fib bundles. Eg tend, organ caps, dermis.
T2 fibrils not form fibres. Hyaline and elast cartil.
T3 fibrils form fibres arnd musc and nerve cells adn within LT and organs=reticulin.
T4 unique. In basal lamina of bm.
-T1- fibrils band ev 68nm. Stage Coll molecs- each 300nm long, 1.5nm wide and comp of 3 helic alpha chains. Phillic gly inside ev 3rd AA.
-fibrob prod Coll, retic, elastin. From proc ill. Lot RER.
-eggs dense irreg testis caps. Retic fib in LN=caps and trabec=irreg anast netw with lymphoc btw.
-elastic fibs- NOT Coll. Elastin prim compon. It enfolds and surr by micro fibrils=fibrillin. Var degs. Imp in dermis, art walls, elast cartil. TEM- amorphous, low elec dens. Fibrillin more dense=darker-at periph and within elastic fibre.
Marfans- autos domin. Exp fibrillin gene abn=tall, arachnodactyly, disloc, aortic rupt.
Trichromatic elast art-tunica intima endoth, media elastic lamellae thick fenstrated sheets, adventitia Coll. Coll and ECM btw, smooth musc. Smooth musc cells in aorta prod elastin, Coll and ma. Not fibrob.


LO4: expl diffs btw loose and dense CT- cell and EC compons, rel to func. Spectrum of dens, not necess one type.
LO5: classif diff type loose and dense CT. eg mamm gl. Loose CT (wispy Coll and lot fibrob). Dense irreg (thicker and more abund Coll, less fibrob).

- loose CT- LP btw crypts lieberkuhn. Also submuc of colon, loose allow movem. Eg below hypodermics, lot GS not stain, br elastic fibres and thicker non br Coll fibres, fibrob, mast, small BV.
Superfic fascia aka subcut tiss v loose eg face/Dorsey of hand, tight eg Palm.
Adip tiss- eg superfic fascia of ant abdo wall and mesenteric so far GIT.
-dense irreg- eg dermis. Bunds Coll pack irreg arr. diff orients= resis force lot direcs. Elast fibres=restor- domin with age.
Thymus caps and trabec- caps can be loose to dense irreg= protec eg adren, spleen, ovary, testis, prostate, jnt.
Deep fascia= cov large musc or as prolongation btw musc grps to form comparts.
-dense reg- tendon. Paral, dens. Line with tensile force. Rows elong flat fibrob btw Coll bundles-not smooth musc. Skel musc fibres ineterdig with tend Coll bunds at myot end junc.
Short lig- bundles dense and paral and undulate and are arr in fascicles, Sep by loose CT.
aponeuroses- tend flat to thin broad sheath eg transm force of oblique muscs.


LO6: list comm cell types in CT (fibrob, Mac, mast) and desc func.

-fibrob in dense irreg- dens pack, irreg orient Coll bundles with fibrob nuc in btw, long thin cytop. Lay down Coll and GS from sec vesics. Lot RER. Sec procoll assemb self to Coll fibrils. Imp in wound heal=scar.
-Mac- der from blood monoc to CT esp where loc inflamm. Phagoc- deg for org and cell debris. APC to T cell.
-mast- cytop lot grans, can obscure nuc. Grans cont- heparin anticoagulant, histamine incr BV perm, subst that attr eosin and neut. rel fast if threat/trauma. Leak fluid and imm cells to site. In CT near BV, NOT CNS to av odema. Mast coated in IgE that bind allergens- gran rel. immed hypersensit.
-spec tiss-
ADIP- some mesenchyme cells to preadipoc (fibrob like commit to become lipobl). Lipobl to lot lip drops in cytop. In brown adip drops rem Sep= multilocular. Found near scrap, sternum, axillae esp newborn, upper chest and neck ad. Thermogenic (non shiver), brown rich vasc and lot mito and uncoup. White adip (maj) fuse= displ contents incl nuc. Toluene and xylene rem. Little ECM.
BLOOD- myeloid SC= erythematous, platelet, granulocytic, monoc, dend. Lymphoid SC= B/T/NK.
ECM is liv. Neut 5 lobe nuc, X chrom stick out fem. rest lymphoc large nuc.
CARTIL- hyaline- chondrobl to chondroc in lacunae. Amorphous firm ma. Coll.
BONE- calcif ma, lot Coll fibres. Osteoc in lacunae. Canaliculi connec. osteoc mechanoR sig build when weak. Supp, protec, movem, Ca store, haematopoiesis.
-Ehlers danlos- Coll fibre abnorms of dermis and tendons=disloc and deformation. Lipomas-benign tum fatt tis. Scurvy- vit C defic=synth abn Coll less strong, can't heal.
-GS= prot, GP, GAG, lip, water.


LO1: def CT and eggs to expl CT func eg bind, supp, protec.

-CT= huge contin through bod. Links musc, nerve and epith tiss in struc way also prov supp in metab and physiol ways.
-CT funcs- join tiss, protec organs. Prov subst and form to bod and organs. Med for diff us nutr and waste. Att musc to bone and bone to bone. Cushion btw tiss and organ allow movem. Def Ag infec WBCs. Aid inj rep eg fibrob.
-CT compons- scatt cells. Extra cell ma: ground subst= hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregs. Fibres= Coll, retic, elastin.
-CT diff in types cells, dens of cells, ECM constit-grand subst composit and fib type/abund/arr.