Flashcards in LAB 2 Deck (18)
1) Separate cell contents from outside environment.
2) Organize chemicals and reactions into specific organelles in cell.
3) regulation of molecules into and out of cells.
characteristic red pigment in beet cells. Located in cell's large central vacuole surrounded by a membrane called Tonoplast. Beet cells itself is surrounded by plasma membrane.
measures amount of Betacyanin that has leaked into solution from the beet cells.
WHY DOES AN OBJECT APPEAR COLORED?
because it absorbs part of a visible spectrum and reflects or transmits other wavelengths.
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
Membrane that is fluid in structure which is held together by a variety of phospholipds.
In order to function well, membrane must be fluid.
Decrease in temperature, solidifies the membrane, phospholipids pack together, changing the permeability. An increase in temperature causes a change in permeability as the membrane becomes too fluid to support protein function. Largest amount of betacyanin release at very low and very high temperatures
measure the absorbance of a chromatophore at the wavelength that it maximally absorbs. Or measure the wavelength of a series of wavelengths.
SPECTROPHOMETER CAN BE USED FOR:
1) ABSORTION SPECTRUM
1) graph that shows the amount of light that is absorbed at different wavelengths.
2) Conc. proportional to abs.
PARTS OF A SPECTROPHOMETER
1) LIGHT SOURCE
2) PHOTOELECTRIC TUBE
3) INDICATOR SCALE
1) emits white light.
2)compares incident light to transmitted light.
3)readings from a spectrophometer is expressed on the Indicator scale.
READINGS FROM A SPECTROPHOMETER IS EXPRESSED IN
1) TRANSMITTANCE (TOP)
WE ALWAYS READ THE ABSORBANCE SCALE.
1) ratio of transmitted light to incident light. (%)
2) negative log of transmittance.
- specifies wavelength at which it absorbs.
STANDARD CURVE LIMITATIONS
1) specific to the pigment and the buffer.
2) cannot be extrapolated for abs. beyond standard curve. needs to be DILUTED
3)calibrate abs. scale to BLANK (0.0). Blank= contains all components of sample except molecule of interest to ensure that spectrophometer only measures the molecule of interest and not the solvent or the media.
particles in a suspension that SCATTER light.
describes the amount of light absorbed or scattered.
ex: OD 600. Subscript= wavelength of light.
graph that shows relationship between absorbance and concentration.
abs directly prop. to 
CONCENTRATION OF UNDILUTED
vol of original sol. / vol of O.S. + volume of solvent
 of diluted sample/ Dilution
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
Fluid: membranes can move, things may pass through (selectively permeable)
Mosaic: membranes are composed of phospholipids, enzymes and proteins that act as channels.