Lab 4 - Biodiversity I Flashcards Preview

FISH 324 Lab > Lab 4 - Biodiversity I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab 4 - Biodiversity I Deck (39):
1

Hagfish: Family, characteristics, Canadian distribution, freshwater/saltwater?

Hagfish

Family Myxinidae

Have 6 to 15 gill pouches Barbels on nostrils and mouth

A single nostril opening through to the pharynx

Mucus glands along the ventral side of the fish

2 species found in the Pacific ocean -- BC. Saltwater, strictly

2

Lamprey: Faimily; characteristics, Canadian distribution, FW/SW?

Lamprey

Family Petromyzontidae

Some are anadromous, while others are strictly FW; sucking disc and rasping tongue for feeding in parasitic forms; have AMMOCOETES that are larval forms which lack oral sucking disc of both parasitic and non-parasitic adults.

11 species in Canadian waters -- 4 species in BC waters Strictly freshwater, but some are ANADROMOUS.

3

Brown cat shark: Class; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Brown cat shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Scyliorhinidae

Species Apristurus brunneus

Two dorsal fins with first dorsal originating well behind pelvic fin insertion; caudal fin confluent with body, which doesn't exhibit any heterocercal; last one or two gill slits over pectorals.

Common in Pacific ocean -- BC SW

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4

Blue shark: Class; family; species; characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW? What other species from this family is found in the Canadian Pacific?

Blue shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Carcharhinidae

Species Prionace glauca

Very long pectoral fins; two dorsal fins, not large; heterocercal caudal fin, with terminal dorsal lobe less than 1/3 of upper lobe; deep indigo blue on back and pectoral fins; second dorsal fin directly over anal fin.

Found in the Canadian Pacific -- BC fish SW Pacific sleeper, Somniosus pacificus

 

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Spiny dogfish shark: Class; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Spiny dogfish shark

Class Chonodrichthyes Family Squalidae

Species Squalus acanthias

White dots along sides; single spine in front of BOTH of the two dorsal fins; NO ANAL FIN; lateral keels.

Found in Canadian Pacific -- BC SW

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6

Cow shark: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cow shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Hexanchidae

No spots on body; six or seven gill openings; lower; highly heterocercal caudal tail; 1dorsal fin.

2 species in Canadian Pacific -- BC None in Atlantic ocean SW

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Salmon shark: Class; Family; Characterisitics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Salmon shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Lamnidae

Large, lightly bulbous and streamlined; large gill slits; conical snout; two dorsal fins with the second dorsal fin significantly smaller than the first (really high) and begins just about/over the anal fin; lunate caudal fins; prominent keels on sides of caudal peduncal with second caudal keel slightly behind the main keel; few but large teeth.

Canadian Pacific -- BC; SW

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8

Angel shark: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Angel shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Squatinidae

Ray-like body; dorsal eyes; two spineless dorsal fins; no anal fins; large spiracles and five gill slits; mouth almost terminal; terminal nostrils with barbels.

Pacific Ocean - NO BC; SW

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9

Nurse shark: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Nurse shark

Class Chondrichthyes Family Ginglymostomatidae

Small spiracles behind lateral eyes; nostrils with short to moderately long barbels.

Tropical - NO BC; SW

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10

Skates: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Skates

Class Chondrichthyes Family Rajidae

Slender tails with lateral keels; two dorsal fins; body approaching rhomboid shape; egg cases are found in only in this family of Chondrichthyes and are species specific.

At least 5 species in Canadian Pacific -- BC; SW

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11

Freshwater/river stingrays: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Freshwater/river stingrays

Class Chondrichthyes Family Potamotrygonidae

Body and pectoral fins almost confluent; head largely enclosed within continuous line of pectoral fins; large defensives spine which secretes poison; often colourful.

Tropical (South America, Atlantic, Carribean) - NO BC; SW

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12

Eagle rays: Class; Family; characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Eagle rays

Class Chondrichthyes Family Myliobatidae

Head largely distinct from large wing-like pectoral fin; eyes set on noticeable verticla plane; very thin whip-like tail with one or more poisonous spine.

Tropical to warm temperate - NO BC; SW

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13

Spotted ratfish/Chimaeras: Class; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Spotted ratfish/Chimeras

Class Chondrichthyes Family Chimaeridae

Smooth skin; large heads with prominent snots; bodies tapered to fine tails; claspers on head and pelvic fins in males, also a pre-pelvic clasper.

one species in BC; SW

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14

Bichars and Reedfish: Class; Sublclass; Order; Family; characterisitics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Bichars & reedfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Chondrostei Order Polypteriformes Family Polypteridae

AIR BREATHERS; a PAIR of GULAR PLATES; lobed pectoral fins; numerous dorsal FINLETS each consisting of single spine attached to one or more soft ray; larvae have external gills like salamanders.

Central, tropical Africa - NO BC; FW

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15

White sturgeon: Class; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

White sturgeon

Class Actinopterygii Order Acipenseriformes Family Acipenseridae

Species Acipenser transmontanus

Anus is posterior to pelvic fin insertion; no scutes posterior to pelvic fins (bony scutes/plates derived from ganoid scales); spiral valve intestine; four barbels in front of an inferior and protrusible mouth

Northern hemisphere, Canadian FW -- BC; FW

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16

Green sturgeon: Class; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Green sturgeon

Class Actinopterygii Order Acipenseriformes Family Acipenseridae

Species Acipenser medirostris

Anus at insertion of pelvic fins; scutes present posterior of pelvic fins -- green is in between; bony scutes/plates derived from ganoid scales; spiral valve intestine; four barbels in front of an inferior and protrusible mouth 

Norther hemisphere, Canadian FW -- BC; FW

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17

Paddlefish: Class; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Paddlefish

Class Actinopterygii Order Acipenseriformes Family Polyodontidae

Long snout; no bony scutes; only minute barbels on snout; filter feeder

Only 2 species: one in central US, and one in China (~extinct) - NO BC; FW, rarely brackish

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18

Gars: Class; Subclass; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Gars

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii (1 of 2 spps) Order Semionotiformes Family Lepisosteidae

AIR BREATHERS; ganoid scales; abbreviate heterocercal tail; long needle-like beaks with numerous sharp teeth.

Eastern Canada - NO BC; FW, sometimes brackish and rarely marine

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19

Bowfins: Class; Subclass; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Bowfins

Class Actinopterygii; Subclass Neopterygii; Order Amiiforme; Family Amiidae

Species Amia calva

AIR BREATHERS; 1gular plate; leptoid scale patterns CYCLOID; very long dorsal fin; abbreviate heterocercal tail.

Eastern Canada ONT - NO BC; FW

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20

What is the key features of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha? What is their distribution?

Osteoglossomorphs have the primary bite = between the GLOSSOHYAL and PARASPHENOID (upper part of palate), of which each are well-toothed.

These fish are typically tropically FW fishes found in Asia, Africa, Australia and S. America but one family (Hiodontidae, mooneyes & goldeyes, Hiodon alosoides) are found in only N. America.

21

Mooneyes & goldeyes: Class; Sublcass; Subdivision; Family; Species (goldeye); Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Mooneyes & goldeyes(to species)

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Family Hiodontidae

Species (goldeye) Hiodon alosoides

Laterally compressed and relatively deep-bodied; teeth present on jaws, tongue, vomer, palatine, parasphenoid, and ectopterygoid; forked tail and small dorsal fin set far back; head scaleless.

Central and eastern Canada - NO BC; FW -- turbid slower-miving waters of lakes and rivers.

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22

Butterfly fish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Butterfly fish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Family Pantodontidae

AIR BREATHERS using vascularized swimbladder; truly flies by beating elongated pectoral fins.

Tropical western Africa - NO BC; FW

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23

Knifefishes, Featherbacks, Featherfin knifefishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Knifefishes, Featherbacks, Featherfin knifefishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Family Notopteridae

Very long anal fin which begins just behind the head and extends along the undersurface of the body to the tip of the tail which provides the main form of propulsion via UNDULATIONS; caudal fin is no evident; a single small slender dorsal fin in center of dorsal side which acts as rudder.

Africa to SE Asia - NO BC; FW, sometimes brackish

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24

Elephant-nosed fishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Charcteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Elephant-nosed fishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Family Mormyridae

Abnormally narrow caudal peduncal with a deeply forked caudal fin; CAPABLE OF ELECTROGENIC ACTIVITY; sometimes characteristic snout extensions; single dorsal and anal fins set back on body usually opposite of each other.

Tropical Africa and Nile - NO BC; FW

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25

Boney tongues: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Boney tongues

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivission Osteoglossomorpha Family Osteoglossidae

AIR BREATHERS via large physostomous swim bladder that is richly supplied by blood vessels; large draw-bridge mouth and large strong toothed tongue; prominent silvery, cycloid scales; large eyes and bony plates covering the head; dorsal and anal fins placed far back on body that they appear continuous with caudal fin.

Circum-tropical, S. America, Africa, SE Asia and N Australia - NO BC; FW

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26

What are the orders found in subdivision Elopomorpha and what is the trait that links all these orders together?

Subdivision Elopomorpha include true eels

  1. Order Anguilliformes tarpons and tenpounders,
  2. Order Elopiformes Bonefishes,
  3. Order Albuliformes

Elopomorpha are characterized by sharing a similar life history stage -- LEPTOCEPHALUS LARVA -- which is totally different from adult.

27

Deepsea spiny eels/tapirfish: Class; Sublcass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Class Actinopterygii Sublcass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Order Albuliformes Family Notacanthidae

Extremely elongate bodies; have pelvic fins, unlike true eels; dorsal fin composed of short isolated spines; long-based anal fin changing from spines to soft rays posteriorly; gill membranes united to each other. 

10 species, 2species in Canada - NO BC VERY RARE; SW deepsea

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28

Conger eels: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Conger eels

Class Actinopterygii Sublcass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Order Anguilliformes Family Congridae

Well-developed pectoral fins; dorsal fin originates just behind pectoral fins; lateral nostrils terminate in short tube; upper jaw does not project.

1 species (out of 109) in Canadian Atlantic waters,  tropical to temperate - NO BC; SW inhabiting shallow to deep areas where burrows may be constructed

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29

Pike congers: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pike congers

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Order Anguilliformes Family Muraenescocidae

Well-developed pectoral fins; dorsal fin extends to insertion of pectoral fins (vs Congridae which begin behind pectorals); conspicuous lateral line; large teeth especially on vomer; conspicuous lateral line; small opercular opening.

Marine, Tropical, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans - NO BC; SW

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30

Moray eels: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Moray eels

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Oder Anguilliformes Family Muraenidae

Lack pectoral fins and lateral lines; long fang-like teeth with second set of jaws in throat -- PHARYNGEAL JAWS -- which also possess teeth.

Tropical and temperate seas, rarely in Atlantic waters - NO BC; SW, some species in or occasionally enter freshwater

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31

Snipe eels: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Snipe eels

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Order Anguilliformes Family Nemichthyidae

Extremely long, nonocclusible upper and lower jaws (can't close), with upper jaw usually longer than lower.

bathy- and mesopelagic i.e. open largely aphotic deep sea waters, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, 4 species occurring in Canadian Pacific - BC; SW

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32

American eel: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

American eel

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Elopomorpha Order Anguilliformes Family Anguillidae

Species Anguilla rostrata

Complete lateral line; well-developed pectoral fins; dorsal fin originates one third the way down the body; cresentric gill openings; minute scales present.

Lives in eastern North America, Canada - Tropical and temperate seas except eastern Pacific and southern Atlantic, with 15 species within family. NO BC; CATATROMOUS = FW, adult & SW, spawn/young

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33

What distinguishes the Subdivision Clupeomorpha from other fishes?

What are the families of Clupeids represented within lab?

Name the families of the Canadian Clupeomorphs.

They have specialised split connection of the swimbladder with the otic cavity; no adipose fin; no lateral line; often with developed keeled scales along the midventral line

  1. Family Clupeidae (herring);
  2. Family Engraulidae (Anchovies);
  3. Family Chirocentridae (wolf herring)

Family Clupeidae :

  1. Clupea pallasi, Pacific herring
  2. Sardinops sagax. Pacific sardine
  3. Alosa sapidissima, American shad
  4. Alosa pseudoharengus, alewive/gaspereau

Family Engraulidae: Engraulis mordax, Northern Anchovy

34

Alewife/gaspereau: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Alewife/gaspereau

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Clupeomorpha Family Clupeidae

Species Alosa pseudoharengus

Sharp ventral scutes; slender caudal peduncle; no spots.

Canadian Atlantic ocean - NO BC; ANADROMOUS

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Pacific herring: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pacific herring

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Clupeomorpha Family Clupeidae

Species Clupea pallasi

No large scales on sides of caudal fin; no striae on operculum; no black spots on body; weak ventral belly scutes.

Canadian Pacific native -- BC; SW

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Pacific sardine: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pacific sardine

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Clupeomorpha Family Clupeidae

Species Sardinops sagax

Body terete ie round/stout; row of dark spots on side; striates on gill cover; specialized tail scales; weak belly scutes; larger scales.

Canadian Pacific native -- BC; SW

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37

American shad: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

American shad

Class Actinopterygii; Subclass Neopterygii; Subdivision Clupeomorpha; Family Clupeidae

Species Alosa sapidissima

Sharp row of enlarged scutes on belly; deep compressed body; row of dark spots above mid-line.

Canadian Pacific introduction -- BC, introduced; ANADROMOUS

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38

Northern anchovy: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Northern anchovy

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Clupeomorpha Family Engraulidae (Anchovies)

Species Engraulis mordax

Very large mouth with maxilla extending far back on head, well behind head; over 100 gill rakers on first arch; subterminal mouths.

Canadian Pacific -- BC; SW

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39

Wolf herring: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Wolf herring

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Clupeomorpha Family Chirocentridae

Fang-like teeth (Clupeids no teeth); elongate and highly compressed body.

Indian and western Pacific tropical and subtropical oceans - NO BC; SW

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