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Flashcards in Lab 5 - Biodiversity II Deck (65):
1

What are the characteristics linking fishes within the superorder Ostaryophysi?  

Ostariophysans are a broad and speciose group comprised nearly totally of primary freshwater fishes, making up the largest proportion of freshwater fishes in the world, including N. America and Canada

They are linked by 2 traits:

  1. WEBERIAN APPARATUS, which is a modification fo the first 4-5 vertebrae into a mechanical connection between the swimbladder and the inner ear for sound transmission i.e. can hear
  2. fishes of this group possess a fright reaction elicited by an ALARM SUBSTANCE or SCHRECKSTOFF contained in the epidermal club cells. Superorder Ostaryophysi is divided into two groups: I) Series Anotphysi II) Series Otophysi

2

Milkfish: Class; Subclass; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Milkfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleosteii Superorder Ostariophysi Order Gonorhynchiformes Family Chanidae

Lack Weberian apparatus but do possess Schreckstoff and reaction to it; deeply forked tail; small and toothless mouth; non-protactule upper jaw; deep and laterally compressed body.

Tropical and subtropical Indian and W. Pacific oceans - NO BC; SW, brackish and occassionally freshwater

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3

What is the Order Cypriniformes characterized by?

Containing, carps, true minnows, suckers, and loaches, Order Cypriniformes are characterized by the following:

  1. protactile premaxilla
  2. no teeth on jaws but do have pharyngeal teeth
  3. adipose absent (with exceptions)
  4. head almost always scaleless
  5. 3 brachiostegals

About 3268 species exist with greatest diversity in SE Asia. About 60 species in Canada, with 1/3 of freshwater fishes belonging to Order Cypriniformes.

4

Cyprinids, (true) minnows, carps, goldfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cyprinids

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Cypriniformes Family Cyprinidae

Protrusible premaxilla; maxilla excluded fromgape of mouth; no jaw teeth; spine-like rays in dorsal fin in some (carps); almost always without an adipose.

Largest freshwater fish family. Canadian freshwater species -- BC; FW, rarely brackish.

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5

Freshwater suckers, redhorses, quillbacks: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Freshwater suckers, redhorses, quillbacks

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleosteii Superorder Ostariophysi Order Cypriniformes Family Catastomidae

Ventral, subterminal, and protrusible mouth almost always with LARGE FLESHY, PAPILLATE LIPS; jaw teeth absent; physostomous swim bladder; no adipose or barbels.

North America, primarily, with exceptions in China and NE Siberia -- BC; FW

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6

What are the traits found in Order Characiformes and which fish does this order contain?

Order Characiformes contains charcains i.e. piranhas, teras, pacu, head standers, freshwater hatchet fish, and tiger fish, which exhibit the following traits:

  1. Mouth not protrusible
  2. Jaw teeth usually well developed (most carnivorous - often but not always with an adipose fin

Important food, aquarium fishes and sport's fishes, freshwater found in Africa, South and Central America to the southwest United States.

7

Pike chacarins or tropical gars: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pike chacarins or tropical gars

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Characiformes Family Ctenoluciidae

Resemble family Lepisosteidae (gars) and family Esocidae (pike) with respect to morphology and ecology, as a result of convergent evolution; distinguished from Lepisosteidae and Esocidae by having an ADIPOSE FIN.

Panama and South America - NO BC; FW

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8

Pencil fish, toothed headstanders: Class; Sublcass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pencil fish, toothed headstanders

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Characiformes Family Anostomidae

Small, terminal to slightly supraterminal mouth; often feed head down.

South America - NO BC; FW

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9

Characins: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Characins

Class Acintopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleosteii Superorder Ostariophysi Order Characiformes Family Characidae

Typically well-toothed with an adipose fin. Includes dangerous predators (piranhas), seed and fruit eaters and many popular aquarium fish.

Texas south through Mexico, Central and South America - NO BC; FW

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10

Hatchetfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Hatchetfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Characiformes Family Gasteropelecidae

Strongly compressed head and deep body with PROTRUDING BONY MUSCULAR BREAST REGION; adipose present in larger species; LARGE WELL DEVELOPED PECTORAL FINS on distinct angle used for making SHORT (true) FLIGHTS in air.

Panama and South America - NO BC; FW

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11

What are the characteristics of the order Siluriformes and which fish does this order contain?

Order Siluriformes contain catfishes which are freshwater and occasionally marine, and whom are characterized by the following traits:

  1. Normally up to four pairs of chemosensory and tactile barbels around the mouth region
  2. Adipose fins present, sometimes extremely developed
  3. Fake spiny, often serrated, rays present as first ray of dorsal and pectoral rays which are fused soft fin rays and NOT TRUE SPINES
  4. Premaxilla non-protrusible
  5. Teeth common in haw on vomer and palantines

Only one family exist in North America, but not in Canada -- family Ictaluridae.

12

Northern catfishes, bullheads & matoms: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Northern catfishes, bullheads & matoms

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Ictaluridae

Body naked and rotund forward; laterally compressed beyond dorsal fin; head large, flattened, and posessing several pairs of whisker-like barbels; dorsal fin and low pectoral fins with serrate spine; long anal fins; adipose fin present; caudal fin square, forked, or round.

Found in North Americal - introduced in BC including Vancouver Island; FW

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13

Suckermouth armoured catfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Suckermouth armoured catfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superoder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Loricariidae

Heavy bony armour; ventral SUCKING mouth with small barbels; adipose fin with spine; often associated with swift flowing streams where their benthic habit and gripping mouth and generally rough surface texture allow them to maintain position.

Panama, South America, North America and Canada - NO BC; FW

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14

Bagrid catfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Bagrid catfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Bagridae

Naked body with variably sized adipose; usually with four pairs of WELL-DEVELOPED LONG BARBELS; size vary.

Africa to Asia including Japan and Borneo - NO BC; FW

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Callichthyid armoured catfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Callichthyid armoured catfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Callichthyidae

AIR BREATHERS through the use of vascular hindgut; can move short distances on land; body covered with TWO ROWS of BONY PLATES; 3 PAIRS of BARBELS; adipose fin has spine.

South America and Panama - NO BC; FW

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16

Shark catfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Shark catfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Famly Pangasiidae

Compressed body; adipose fin present; LONG ANAL FIN; forked caudal fin; mouth nearly terminal; two sets of barbels max.

Southern Asia - NO BC; FW

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17

Walking/air-breathing catfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Walking/air-breathing catfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Clariidae

AIR BREATHING labyrinthic organ arising from gill arches; usually 4 pairs of barbels; dorsal base very long NO SPINE; separate/continuous caudal fin; no adipose.

SW Asia, Syria and Africa - NO BC; FW

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18

Thorny/talking catfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Thorny/talking catfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi Order Siluriformes Family Doradidae

AIR BREATHERS and able to SPEAK using pectoral fins and/or swim bladders; body has a row of lateral boney plates, most with spines; thee pairs of barbels; dorsal and pectorals with well developed serrated spine.

South America - NO BC; FW

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19

What are the general characterisitcs of superorder Protacanthopterygii and what are the 4 orders found within this superorder?

Superorder Protacanthopterygii members share GENERAL PRIMITIVE ACTINOPTERYGIAN traits.

4 orders:

  1. Esociformes (pikes, pikerals, mudminnows)
  2. Argentiniformes (marine smelts)
  3. Osmeriformes (freshwater and anadromous smelts, galaxids)
  4. Salmoniformes (graylings, whitefish, salmon, charr and trout)

20

Northern pike (pikes & pickerels): Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Northern pike (pikes & pickerels)

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Esociformes Family Esocidae

Species Esox lucius

Large head, flat duck bill-like snot; well developed teeth on jaws.

Eastern North America and northern hemisphere, widespread in Canada -- BC, north and northeast; FW, sometimes brackish

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21

Mudminnows and Alaska blackfish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Mudminnows and Alaska blackfish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Esociformes Family Umbridae

AIR BREATHER; snout NOT pronounced (vs Esocidae pike); round caudal fin (vs abbreviate heterocercal in Amiidae Amia calva bowfin) ; faint or absent lateral line.

North America and Europe, 2 in Canada - NO BC; FW

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22

What are the characteristics of order Osmeriformes and what family was examined in lab?

Order Osmeriformes is a diverse froup of small mainly freshwater and anadromous fishes including freshwater smelts. Family Osmeridae (smelts) are represeneted here.

Characteristics of order Osmeriformes: 

  1. have adipose fin but
  2. do not have pelvic axillary process

23

Smelts, Eulachon spps: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Smelts, Eulachon spps

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Osmeriformes Family Osmeridae

Species Thaleichthys pacificus .

ADIPOSE FIN; elongate body; NO PELVIC AXILLARY PROCESS; mouth often large, maxilla extending past posterior margin of eye

northern hemisphere in Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific; 5/31 species in Canada, 4 native in... BC; SW, anadromous and coastal freshwater

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24

What are the characteristics of order Argentiniformes and what are the 4 families found in Canadian Pacific waters?

Order Argentiniformes, or marine smelts, are deepsea forage fishes with or without adipose fin, with or without photophores, and having a COMPLEX BRANCHIAL STRUCTURE -- a CRUMENAL ORGAN.

The 4 Canadian Pacific families (6-7 families) are as follows:

  1. family Bathylagidae, deepsea or black smelts
  2. family Argentinidae, Argentines/herring smelts
  3. family Platyroctidae, tubeshoulders
  4. family Alepocephailae, slickheads

25

Deepsea/black smelts: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Deepsea/black smelts

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Argentiniformes Family Bathylagidae

Small fish; adipose fin; large eyes.

1 species in Canadian Atlantic waters, 4 species occur in Canadian Pacific -- BC; SW

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26

Argentines/herring smelt: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Argentines/herring smelt

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Argentiniformes Family Argentinidae

Adipose fin; small mouth; maxillary and premaxillary without teeth.

Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with ~23 species 1 species in Canadian Pacific -- BC; SW

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27

Tubeshoulders: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Chracteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Tubeshoulders

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Argentiniformes Family Platyroctidae

No adipose fin; a large round, black sac/shoulder organ located immediately inside the upper portion of the cleithrum.

All oceans -- BC; SW

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28

Slickheads: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Slickheads

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Argentiniformes Family Alepocephailae

No adipose fin; no photophores.

All oceans, with at least 90 species, also Canadian Pacific waters -- BC; SW, deepsea

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29

What are the three subfamilies found in family Salmonidae? What order is the familiy found within?

  1. Subfamily Coregoninae
  2. Subfamily Thymallinae
  3. Subfamily Salmoninae

Family Salmonidae is the only one family found in order Salmoniformes.

30

What families are found in the order Salmoniformes?

Only one family, Salmonidae

31

What are the characteristics of family Salmonidae that tie the three subfamiliies together?

Salmonidae are relatively primitive bony fish

  1. Lack spines on fins
  2. Pelvic fins are positioned well back on the body
  3. Have a tab-like fleshy AXILLARY PROCESS associated with the base of the pelvic fin
  4. Adipose fin
  5. Freshwater or anadromous

32

What is the difference in anal fin shape and ray counts between fish within subfamily Salmoninae?

Oncorhynchus, or more derived semelparous Pacific salmon have greater than 13 anal fin rays and produces a LARGE FAN SHAPED ANAL FIN.

Most iteroparous/primitive Oncorhynchus (STHD, RBT, CTH) and all Salmo, Salvenlinus, Hucho, and Brachymystax species have less than 13 anal fin rays and produces a PERPENDICULAR ANAL FIN.

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33

What species are found within the subfamily Coregoninae?

  1. Prosopium williamsoni, mountain whitefish
  2. Prosopium cylindraceum, round whitefish
  3. Coregonus clupeaformis, lake whitefish
  4. Corregonus artedii, lake cisco
  5. Stenodus leucichthys, Inconnu

34

Mountain whitefish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Mountain whitefish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Coregoninae

Species Prosopium williamsoni

PARR MARKS as juveniles; LARGE ADIPOSE FIN, = 1.5X eye diameter; no teeth and small mouth; distinct slant on head;

Western North America, Alberta, SE Yukon, SW NWT -- BC; FW

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Round whitefish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Round whitefish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Coregoninae

Species Prosopium cylindraceum

PARR MARKS as juveniles; SMALL ADIPOSE, base = eye; slender, round cigar-shaped body.

Across Canada but only in most northern part of BC -- BC; FW

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36

Lake whitefish: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Lake whitefish

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Coregoninae

Species Coregonus clupeaformis

NO PARR MARK as juveniles; snout overhangs mouth, SUBTERMINAL; few gill rakers; deep laterally compressed body.

Canada -- BC; FW

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Lake cisco: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Lake cisco

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Coregoninae

Species Coregonus artedii

NO PARR MARK as juveniiles; mouth TERMINAL; many gill rakers; deep laterally compressed body.

East and central Canada -- BC northern tip; FW

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38

Inconnu: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Inconnu

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Coregoninae

Species Stenodus leucichthys

NO PARR MARK with LARGE MOUTH as juveniles; mouth large, maxilla exteding back to pupil of eye; lower jaw broad and projecting, equal or greater than the upper jaw, TERMINAL or SUPRATERMINAL.

NW Canada -- BC, far north; FW, anadromous

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39

What fish is found in subfamily Thymallinae and which species is found in North America?

Graylings, 4 to 5 species with only one in North America: Arctic Grayling, Thymallus arcticus.

40

Arctic grayling: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

 

Arctic grayling

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Thymallinae

Species Thymallus articus

SMALL PARR MARK as juveniles; Large dorsal fin; small to intermediate sized mouth; teeth on jaws; large scales.

North America -- BC northern; FW strictly

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41

What are characteristics of subfamily Salmoninae and the three genera found in North America?

Slamoninae have

  • small scales (>110 lateral line)
  • arge, usually well-toothed jaws (maxilla mid-eye or beyond)
  • small dorsal fins

The 3 genera in N. America are

  1. Salvelinus, chars
  2. Salmo, trouts
  3. Oncorhynchus, salmon

42

What are the 5 species of Salvelinus in North America? What are the distinguishing characteristics of these species? What subfamily does this genus belong to?

  1. Salvelinus fontinalis, brook trout
  2. Savelinus malma, Dolly Varden
  3. Salvelinus confluentus, bull trout
  4. Salvelinus namayacush, lake trout
  5. Salvelinus alpinus, Arctic char

Distinguishing features:

  • very small scales light spots on dark body
  • snow white leading edge on fins
  • vomer teeth in V-pattern, none on shaft
  • Subfamily Salmoninae

43

Lake trout: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Lake trout

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salvelinus namayacush

White vermiculations on sides and dorsal; deeply forked tail; large mouth; large parr marks.

Across Canada -- BC, mid to north; FW only, non-anadromous only member of subfamily

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44

Brook trout: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Brook trout

Class Actinopterygii Sublcass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salvelinus fontinalis

Black vermiculations on dorsal fin; red spots with blue halos; pelvic and anal fins have bold white leading edge followed by black line; large mouth, maxilla extends past eye.

Eastern Canada and parts of US - NO BC; FW & anadromous

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Bull trout: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Bull trout

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salvelinus confluentus

No vermiculations on dorsal fin; large maxilla, extending past eye; white to pink spots; white leading edge on pelvic and anal fin followed by black edge.

North America -- BC, non-coastal; FW, rarely anadromous

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Dolly Varden: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Dolly Varden

Class Actinopterygii Sublcass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salvelinus malma

No markings on dorsal fin; white to pinkish round spots; white leading edge on pelvic and anal fin not followed by black line only with white line; small mouth, maxilla not extending past eye.

Coastal BC, through to Alaska, and E. Asia -- BC; FW and anadromous

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47

What are two North American species of Salmo (trout)? Are they both native?

  1. Salmo trutta, brown trout is introduced widely in North America, including BC.
  2. Salmo salar, Atlantic salmon are found native in eastern North America and Europe.

48

Brown trout: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Brown trout

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salmo trutta

Parr have small adipose fin, orange, with red spots between parr marks; Square caudal fin; black/brown spots on white background; some RED SPOTS on body; spots on orange adipose; few or no spots on caudal fin.

Native in Europe, introduced in North America -- BC, introduced; FW & anadromous

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Atlantic salmon: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Subfamily; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Atlantic salmon

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Protacanthopterygii Order Salmoniformes Family Salmonidae Subfamily Salmoninae

Species Salmo salar

Black spots on white body and on operculum; no spots on slightly forked caudal fin; anal fin slight slant; Parr have LARGE PECTORAL FINS and RED SPOTS between parr marks along lateral line, and CLEAR ADIPOSE.

Eastern North America and Europe - NO BC; FW & anadromous

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50

What are the species names of the Pacific salmon?

  1. Oncorhynchus keta, chum salmon
  2. Oncorhynchus nerka, sockeye salmon
  3. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, pink salmon
  4. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Chinook
  5. Oncorhynchus kisutch, coho
  6. Oncorhynchus mykiss, RBT
  7. Oncorhynchus clarki, cutthroat

51

How are salmon/trout and char fry distinguished from each other?

Char fry are distinguished from trout and salmon fry by LARGE, BLOTCHY PARR MARKS, some of which are wider than intervening light areas, and a TRIANGULAR DUSKY PATCH of pigment that extends halfway out on caudal fin.

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What are the differences between Oncorhynchus kisutch and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha fry?

Both have long anal fins and parr marks are larger than eye diameter but...

  • O. kisutch (coho) has an anal fin that is FALCATE, with black leading edge; and fins are coloured.
  • O. tshawytscha (chinook) have a more angular anal fin, adipose fin has clear window.

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53

What are the differences between Oncorhynchus nerka and Oncorhynchus keta fry?

Both have parr marks smaller than the diameter of the eye.

  1. O. nerka, sockeye, have more irregular/UNEVEN parr marks; silver or white on ventral side.
  2. O. keta, chum, have more regular/EVEN parr mark heights; area below laterla line is greenish.

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54

What member of Salmoninae have no parr marks? Who shares this trait?

Onchorhynchus gorbuscha, pink salmon, fry do not have parr marks.

This is shared with members of Coregoninae, Stenodus leucicthys (inconnu), Coregonus clupeaformis (lake whitefish), and Coregonus artedii (lake cisco)

55

What are the characterisitcs of superorder Stenopterygii, order Stomiiformes and what families are examined within this order?

Superorder Stenopterygii, order Stomiiformes have the following traits:

  • photophroes
  • premaxilla and maxilla both in gape of mouth with teeth
  • chin barbels sometimes present
  • pectoral, dorsal, adipose fin absent in some cases
  • adipose fin sometimes ventral
  1. Family Sternoptychidae, marine hatchetfishes
  2. Family Stomiidae, barbeled dragonfishes, viperfishes

56

Marine hatchetfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Marine hatchetfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Stenopterygii Order Stomiiformes Family Sternoptychidae

Abdominal keel-like structure/BLADE in front of ANTERIOR VENTRAL composed of specialized pterygiophores; mouth nearly vertical; body deep and extremely compressed; adipose fin; numerous ventrally facing photophores.

Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans -- BC; SW

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Barbeled dragonfishes, viperfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Barbeled dragonfishes, viperfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Stenopterygii Order Stomiiformes Family Stomiidae

Often fang-like teeth, with a very large sometimes detachable jaw; photophores common; netal barbels associated with hyoid apparatus.

Atlantic, Indian, Pacific oceans -- BC; SW

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58

What are the traits of fishes in superorder Scopelomorpha and what are the 7 families examined in lab?

Superorder Scopelomorpha are marine fishes with highly variable habitat. Many have BIOLUMINESCENT structures as well as an ADIPOSE FIN, and have a TOOTHLESS MAXILLA which is excluded from upper jaw and only the premaxilla is toothed. This is the first time that this trait appears in living fishes, but upper jaw still not protrusible.

  1. Family Synodontidae, lizardfishes, Bombay ducks 
  2. Family Scopelosauridae, paperbones, waryfishes 
  3. Family Anotopteridae, daggertooths 
  4. Family Paralepididae, barracudinas
  5. Family Alepisauridae, lancetfishes 
  6. Family Scopelarchidae, pearleyes
  7. Family Myctophidae, lanternfishes

59

Bombay ducks and lizardfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Bombay ducks and lizardfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Synodontidae

Large well-toothed jaws and an adipose fin; pelvic fins lie under dorsal fins; mostly benthic, lie and wait predators.

Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, shallow coastal tropical and subtropical waters; BC; SW, rarely brackish typically

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Paperbones, Waryfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Paperbones, Waryfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Scopelosauridae

Large eyes; large scaled mouth on large head; pelvic fins are anterior to the dorsal fins; adipose fin.

Subartic to Antartic -- BC; SW

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Daggertooths: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Daggertooths

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Anotopteridae

Elongate cylindrical fishes, compressed anteriorly; long pointed jaw; no rayed dorsal fin; adipose fin present; fragile bones

Temperate waters of Pacific and Antlantic oceans -- BC; SW, bathypelagic

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Barracudinas: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Barracudinas

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Paralepididae

Distinct dorsal fin 2/3 of way down body; adipose fin present; predatory deep-sea fish resembling family Anotopteridae, daggertooths, but much smaller in size

All oceans, Artic and Antartic -- BC; SW

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Lancetfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Lancetfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Alepisauridae

Large sail-like dorsal fin; adipose fin; scaleless, slender body; no photophores; RARE

Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans -- BC; SW

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Pearleyes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pearleyes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Scopelarchidae

Small, compressed, elongate body; only small gap between eyes which are directed forward and upwards; not overly massive jaw, where lower jaw projects past upper jaw, SUPRA-TERMINAL mouth

Antarctic, Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans -- BC; SW

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Lanternfishes: Class; Subclass; Subdivision; Superorder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Lanternfishes

Class Actinopterygii Subclass Neopterygii Subdivision Euteleostei Superorder Scopelomorpha Family Myctophidae

Photophores below lateral line, where patterns = species- and sex-specific; adipose fin; large anal fin placed far back; large mouth, small teeth; thought to be most abundant of all fishes in the world SW

All oceans -- BC; SW

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