Lab 7 - Biodiversity IV Flashcards Preview

FISH 324 Lab > Lab 7 - Biodiversity IV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab 7 - Biodiversity IV Deck (37):
1

What is the characteristic found in fishes of order Scorpaeniformes?

Suborbital stay, composed of the REARWARD EXPANSION of the 3rd suborbital bone to the point that it links up with the preopercle bone.

It is thought that this acts to support the flexible skull and hence increase the effectiveness of the head spines that are often present in this group.

Can often feel the suborbital stay just beneath the skin overlying the cheek muscles.

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Rockfishes, scorpionfishes, stonefishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Rockfishes, scorpionfishes, stonefishes.

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percormorpha; order Scorpaeniformes; family Scorpaenidae

Body compressed and stout; head usually with ridges and spines; mouth ususally terminal and large; 1 or 2 opercular spines & 3 to 5 preopercular spines; usually 1 dorsal fin with a notch between spinous and soft-rayed portion; Venom glands in dorsal, anal, and pelvic spines; Internal fertilizaiton in most species, with viviparity i.e. live-bearing (Genus Sebastes, most BC rockfishes); other BC rockfishes (Genus Sebastolobus) lack gas bladders and are oviparous.

All tropical and temperate oceans, abundant in Canadian Pacific and Atlantic waters; BC; SW, rareyl FW

418 species, with at least 37 in BC; only about 7 species in Atlantic Canada

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Searobins - Class; Superorder; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Searobins

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Scorpaeniformes; family Triglidae

Head large, encased in a bony sheath, with spines and ridges, highly armoured head, sometimes body as well; mouth inferior with small teeth; pectoral fins low on body, moderate to long in length; lower 3 rays of pectoral fins are detached

Tropical and temperate oceans, southern Atlantic; NO BC; SW

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Snooks, barramundi, Nile perch - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Snooks, barramundi, Nile perch

Class Actinopterygii; Superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; Suborder Percoidei; Familiy Centropomidae

Lower jaw projects beyond upper jaw; lateral line extends well onto tail; dorsal fin = 2 portions, separated by gap; anal fin with 3 spines, often long, stiff and very well-developed

Tropical & sub-tropical waters globally; NO BC; SW/FW

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Temperate basses (white perch, white bass & striped bass) - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Temperate basses (white perch, white bass & striped bass)

Class Actinopterygii; Superorder Percomorpha; Order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Moronidae

2 separate dorsal fins, 2nd with spines; no spine on anal fin; lateral line extends to almost posterior margin of caudal fin; opercle with 2 dorsal spines

Eastern N.A., introduced in Cali and BC; FW/Brackish/CoastalSW

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6

Sea basses, groupers - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Sea basses, groupers

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family serranidae

Opercle with 3 flat spines; lateral line does not extend onto caudal fin; dorsal fin generally continuous, may be notched; large caudal peduncle; round, rarely forked caudal fin; contains many hermaphrodites

Tropical & temperate, few in Canadian Atlantic; NO BC; SW/FW(few)

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Sunfishes, large & smallmouth bass, crappies - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Sunfishes, large & smallmouth bass, crappies

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Centrarchidae

Dorsal fins broadly connected (sunfish) or with a deep notch (basses); laterally compressed often deep-bodied fishes; most often associated with littoral zones of lakes; caudal fin usually slightly forked; generally warm-water fishes, with restricted south-east Canadian distribution; male parental care, including nest building, common in family

Easter N.A. but widley introduced; intro'd BC; FW

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Smallmouth bass - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Smallmouth bass

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorphs; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Centrarchidae

Species Micropterus dolomieui

Dorsal fins notched; mouth = small; vertical stripes present; greater than 3 anal spines

INTRODUCED in BC; FW

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Largemouth bass  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Largemouth bass

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Centrarchidae

Species Micropterus salmoides

Maxilla is large, past eye; less than 3 anal fin spines; stripes are horizontal

INTRODUCED IN BC; FW

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10

What are the fishes and traits that are found in family Percidae? What are the 3 species examined in lab?

Includes perch, walleye, sauger, darters.

All freshwater

Northern hemisphere, greatest diversity in N. America

ONLY walleye NATIVE TO BC

have fins with both soft rays and stiff spines; dorsal fin, located in the middle of back is divided into 2 distinct sections, front is spiny and rear is soft-rayed; distinguished from Centrarchidae by (I) 2 sections of the dorsal fin are dsitinctly separated in Percidae, not continuous, (II) Percidae have 2 or less anal fin spines (vs 3 or more in Centrarchidae)

Darters thought of as warm-water equivalents of FW sculpins, common in streams, and littoral areas of lakes and ponds

Walleye, sauger and perch are highly popular sport fishes

  1. Yellow perch, Perca flavescens
  2. walleye, Sander vitreus
  3. sauger, Sander canadensis

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Yellow perch  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Yellow Perch

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Percidae

Species Perca flavescens

Vertical stripes along body; have fins with both soft rays and stiff spines; dorsal fin, located in the middle of back is divided into 2 distinct sections, front is spiny and rear is soft-rayed; distinguished from Centrarchidae by (I) 2 sections of the dorsal fin are dsitinctly separated in Percidae, not continuous, (II) Percidae have 2 or less anal fin spines (vs 3 or more in Centrarchidae)

INTRODUCED IN BC; FW

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Walleye  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Walleye

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Percidae

Species Sander vitreus

white mark at tip of lower caudal fin; no stripes; no spots, but dusky first dorsal, with dark blotch at rear on dorsal fin; have fins with both soft rays and stiff spines; dorsal fin, located in the middle of back is divided into 2 distinct sections, front is spiny and rear is soft-rayed; distinguished from Centrarchidae by (I) 2 sections of the dorsal fin are dsitinctly separated in Percidae, not continuous, (II) Percidae have 2 or less anal fin spines (vs 3 or more in Centrarchidae)

ONLY PERCIDAE NATIVE to BC; FW

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Sauger - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Sauger

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Percidae

Species Sander canadensis

1st dorsal fin spotted; have fins with both soft rays and stiff spines; dorsal fin, located in the middle of back is divided into 2 distinct sections, front is spiny and rear is soft-rayed; distinguished from Centrarchidae by (I) 2 sections of the dorsal fin are dsitinctly separated in Percidae, not continuous, (II) Percidae have 2 or less anal fin spines (vs 3 or more in Centrarchidae)

INTRODUCED IN BC; FW

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14

Cardinalfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cardinalfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Apogonidae

2 distinct tall dorsa fins, each with a short fin-base; enlarged pelvic fins up front; a tall, short fin-based anal fin; parental care common in this group, with mouth-brooding of eggs common

Tropical; NO BC; SW (few brackish & FW)

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15

Cobia - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cobia

Class Acintopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Preciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Rahycentridae

Long, slim fish; broad depressed fish; lower jaw projects past upper jaw; dark lateral stripe extends through eye to tail; 1st dorsal fin = 7 to 9 free spines, preceding 2nd long dorsal; long anal fin

Tropical Atlantic & Indo-Pacific oceans; NO BC; SW

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16

Remoras, sharksuckers  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Remoras, sharksuckers

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Echeneidae

Moderate sized fishes with cylindrical body shap; 1st spinous dorsal modified into a sucking disc, veneitan blind-like used to attach to larger animals; lower jaw projecting; swimbladder absent; uniquely adapted fusiform body shape for taking free-rides 

Tropical to warm-temperate waters of Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans; BC occasionally; SW

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17

Jacks, pompanos, trevallies, & pilotfish  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Jacks, pompanos, trevallies, & pilotfish

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Peromorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Carangidae

Fast, cruising predators; laterally compressed fishes of varying body depth and length; distinguished by boney scutes (derived from scales) along lateral line to tail; dorsal and anal fins large with finlets from behind; 2 dorsal fins (2nd much bigger); very thin caudal peduncle, typically with keels and highly lunate caudal fin; long pointedpectoral fins mounted high on body; body typical with large naked areas; ALMOST ALWAYS HAVE FREE-FLOATING ANAL SPINES IN FRONT, USUALLY CONCEALED IN GROOVE

Tropical to temperate seas, including Pacific and Atlantic Canadian waters; BC; SW

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Pomfrets  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pomfrets

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Bramidae

Single, long dorsal & anal fins; narrow caudal peduncle, with lunate caudal fin; deep laterally compressed bodies; terminal mouth, directed upwards; pectoral fins are large and pointed; SMALL PELVIC FINS MOUNTED BELOW pectorals; NO free-floating spines

Atlantic, Indian, & Pacific oceans; BC; SW

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Manefishes  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Manefishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Caristiidae

Relatively small fishes, with deep laterally compressed bodies; blunt heads; large eyes; large single dorsal that is usually damaged and starts above head and continues to near tail; anal film also long and usually damaged; long thread-like pelvic fins; fleshy sheath on dorsal and anal that covers dorsal, anal and pelvic fins when not erected.

Atlantic, Indian, & Pacific oceans, meso- and bathypelagic; BC; SW

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True snappers - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

True snappers

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Lutjanidae

Head large, somewhat trianguilar in shape, forehead/frontal often slightly convex; relatively small terminal mouth with canaine teeth; deep bodies, complete lateral lines; truncate to deeply forked caudal fins; NO PREOPERCLE SPINES; dorsal fin long often with a shallow notch

Tropical to subtropical, Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans; NO BC; SW

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21

Drums, croakers, sheepsheads - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Drums, croakers, sheepsheads

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Sciaenidae

Concave head bc maximum body depth is just behind head; heavy, stout bodied, usually laterally compressed; small, subterminal mouth, often with single chin barbel; dorsal fin connected and is long with a deep notch separating spinous & soft-rayed portions; upper edge of opercle usually with deep notch; lateral line extends to back of tail, which is truncate or rounded; can produce sound by way of muscles on swimbladder; have associated otoliths to hear

The freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, is WIDESPREAD in EASTERN CENTRAL N. AMERICA, including CANADA but NOT BC; 2 marine spps in Canadian Pacific; BC; SW/FW(east central Canada)

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22

Goatfishes  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Goatfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Mullidae

2 independently movable hyoid barbels used for detecting food; body elongate; 2 dorsal fins; caudal fin forked; typically found on sandy bottoms of shallow water

Atlantic, Indian, Pacifc oceans; NO BC; SW

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Butterfly fishes  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Butterfly fishes

Class Actinoptertygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Chaetodontidae

small coulourful deep-bodied, strongly compressed; continous dorsal fin; NO SPINE at preopercle angle; scales extend onto anal and dorsal fins; well-developed pelvic axillary process most with band across eye and eyespot dorsally or in posterior region; large pelvic & anal fins; mouth small and terminal

Tropical to temparate, coral reefs, all oceans; NO BC (rarely Atlantci Can); SW

 

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Angel fishes  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Angel fishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Pomacanthidae

Look very similar to Chaetodontidae, butterfly fishes; NO well-developed pelvic axiallary process; dorsal & anal fins often with long rearward extensions; scales often extend onto dorsal & anal fin; coral reefs

Torpcial all oceans, mainly Western Pacific; NO BC; SW

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Amorheads - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Amorheads

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Pentacerotidae

Body strongly compressed, usually fairly deep; head encased in exposed rough, strong, striated bone; 1 dorsal fin, with numerous large, stiff, broad spines in front section; anal fin also with 2-5 strong spines; thickened/hardened ventral scale; uncharacteristically a pelagic fish, which usually do not have strong bones nor large spines; spend dat at depth and migrate to surface to feed at night

Indo-Pacific and SW Atlantic oceans; BC; SW

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Cichlids - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cichlids

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Cichlidae

Interrupted/split lateral line in most; single, large, connected dorsal fin with well-developed spines and soft rays; typically large anal fin; pelvic fins present; colourful, typically small fishes; highly developed breeding system, with bi-parental care of young common 

Members have undergone explosive adaptive radiation in a number of rift valley lakes in Africa, which has occurred independently within these isolated lakes; PICTURE = almost identical species in 2 African rift valley lakes, which are NOT EVEN MEMBERS OF SAME GENUS  

Tropical to subtropical, highly diverse in Africa & S. America; NO BC; FW, some can tolerate very high salinities but NOT TRULY MARINE

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Surfperches - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Surfperches

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Embiotocidae

all are viviparous, giving birth to very well developed & large young (2-4cm); laterally compressed, relatively deep bodied, more or less eliptical in outline; lateral line high, obvious & NEVER broken or split; spinous and soft-rayed dorsal fin are continuous, no clear notch; clear groove along either side of dorsal fin; caudal fin deeply forked

Coastsal marine, North Pacific; BC; SW including brackish waters

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28

Damselfishes, anemonefishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Damselfishes, anemonefishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Pomacentridae

Short head; small mouth with protrusible jaws; unlike Pomacanthidae, anglefishes, NO large spine on operculum; large continuous dorsal fin, with spinous portion alway longer than soft-rayed portion; thick caudal peduncle; like Cichlidae, lateral line incomplete or interrupted; body deep and laterally compressed; large pectoral & pelvic fins; well-developed male parental care of eggs, which is relatively rare in marine fish to the point where fish may be protandrous in anemonefishes when males turn into females when female parent removed

All tropical and subtropical seas; NO BC; SW

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Wrasses, cleaner wrasses - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Wrasses, cleaner wrasses

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Labridae

Body shape variaable across species, from short and depp to long and slender; typically with moderate to large sized cycloid scales; lateral line complete or interrupted; head with pointed or blunt snout; mouth is small to moderate sized, terminal, often with very odd outward projecting teeth or canines; pectoral fins are fan-like, used extensively in locomtion; dorsal fin is continuous; one of the largest families (453 species) many of which are sequential hermaphrodites or protogynous fish - switch from females to males; highly sexually dimorphic

All oceans, mainly tropical to subtropical, associated with coral reefs; NO BC; SW

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Parrotfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Parrotfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Percoidei; family Scaridae

Highly colourful, specialized herbivores, feeding on dead coral substrates; small fused beak-like mouths, teeh coalesced into broad biting plates; non-protrusible jaw; single long continuous dorsal fin; relatively long anal fin; body oblong and laterally compressed; large cycloid scales; many are sequential hermaphrodites, protogynous fishes with associated sexual dimorphism; numerous species encase themselves in a mucous ball for protection at night

Mainly tropical, all oceans; NO BC; SW

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Ronquils, searchers - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Ronquils, searchers

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Bathymasteridae

Elongate and rather slender benthic fish; dorsal & anal fins long and continuous, composed of soft rays; lateral line high on body; rounded large pectoral & caudal fins; pelvic fins = thoracic & small

Coastal North Pacific; BC; SW

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Eelpouts - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Eelpouts

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Zoarcidae

Elongate, ususally samll fishes with long dorsal & anal fins that are usually confluent with caudal fin ie NO DISTINCT CAUDAL FIN; pelvic fins are frequently absent but are thoracic if present; no spines in any fins, which are usuallly covered in thick skin; jaw terminal or subterminal; some species are ovoviviparous ie live-bearing

All oceans from Arctic to Antarctic, usually benthic; BC; SW

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Wrymouths - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Wrymouths

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Cryptacanthodidae

Elongate, eel-like fishes of moderate size; dorsal long, composed only of spines, starts by tip of operculum and extends all the way to caudal fin, with which it is confluent with; caudal fin is distinct; pelvic fins absent; pectoral fins typically small; head is flattened & shows prominent pores, with eyes set on top of head; large terminal mouth; lateral line absent or indistinct

Cold temparate North Pacific and northwest Atlantic oceans; BC; SW

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Wolffishes, wolfeels - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Wolffishes, wolfeels

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Anarhichadidae

Elongate eel-like fishes reaching 2.4m in length; large terminal mouth with strong conical canines & blunt teeth for crushing invertebrate prey; dorsal fin comprised entirely of spines, either confluent with caudal fin or not; pectoral fins large, no pelvic fins; body naked or with minute cycloid scales

North Pacific & north Atlantic oceans; BC; SW

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Prowfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Prowfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Zaproridae

Stout, laterally compressed fish with an elongate body; blunt head,m with many large obvious lateral pores; mouth directed upwards; long dorsal fin supported by spines, covered in thick protective flesh; not conluent with distinct caudal fin; rounded or truncate caudal fins; gill membranes united

North Pacific, California to Alaska; BC; SW

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Pricklebacks - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pricklebacks

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Stichaeidae

Small eel-like fishes, diverse in appearance; dorsal composed entirely of spines in most species; if pelvic fins present, it has one spine and 3 or 4 rays; lateral line faint or absent; long anal fin =

(distance from head to start of anal fin) < (distance from start of anal fin to end of tail) versus Pholidae where distance from head to strat of anal fin is greater than anal to fin distance

Primarily north Pacific, few in Atlantic; BC; SW

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Gunnels - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Gunnels

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Zoaroidea; family Pholidae

Small littoral fishes often found at low tide or in tide pools; caudal, dorsal, anal fins conluent; dorsal fins = spines; pelvic fins if present composed of one spine and one ray; lateral line absent; anal fin shorter than in Stichaeidae

(distance from head to start of anal fin) > (distance from start of anal fin to end of tail)

North Atlantic & Pacific; BC; SW

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