Lab 8 - Biodiversity V Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 8 - Biodiversity V Deck (34):
1

Sand lances  - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species (Pacific sand lance); Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Sand lances

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Trachinoidea; family Ammodytidae 

Pacific sand lance species Ammodytes hexapeterus

Grows to 20cm long locally, but reaches 26 cm in the Bering Sea; no commercial harvest of this small fish, but has tremendous indirect value as a prey of many marine vertebrates including salmon, lingcod, flatfishes, seabirds, and seals; body elongate; lower jaw projects beyond upper jaw; forked caudal fin; pelvic fins usually absent; small cycloid scales; lateral line high on body; no spines in long single dorsal fin or in long anal fin

Tropical to polar waters in Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, & Indian oceans; BC; SW

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Sandfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Sandfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Trachinoidea; family Trichodontidae

Sculpin-like fishes; broad head tapering to forked caudal fin; distinctly large upward pointing, supraterminal mouth, outlined with a comb-like straining fringe; 2 separate dorsal fins, spiny and soft rayed; long anal fin; often bury in sand, awaiting passing prey

North Pacific; BC; SW

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Ragfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Ragfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Icosteoidei; family Icosteidae

Containing only one family and one species, wihtin this suborder, the ragfish Icosteus aenigmaticus; elliptical, flaccid highly compressed body; skeleton largely cartilaginous; long  dorsal & anal fins with no spines; narrow caudal peduncle, large truncated caudal fin; pelvic fin absent in adults, but loosely attached and utimately lost in young

Pacific coast of N. America; BC; SW

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Clingfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Clingfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Gobiesocidae; family Gobiesocidae

Small fish, <10cm; with broadly depressed & wide heads; no scales; pelvic fins united to make a thoracic sucking disc, not like a pedestal as in Gobiidae; dorsal & anal fin with only soft rays

Primarily shalloow water to intertidal, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans; BC; SW

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Gobies - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Gobies

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Gobioidei; family Gobiidae

Generally small benthic fishes with large pelvic fins united to form an adhesive sucking disc/PEDESTAL; typically with two separate dorsal fins, 1st small and composed of spines; highly diverse group with 1950 species; associated with complex habitats ex corals, sponges, rocky reefs, etc, often living in burrows of their own making

Tropical to temparate waters; BC; SW/FW; mainly tropical marine, but some in tropical FW and in marine temperate waters, including 3 spps in BC Pac waters; 1 spps introduced into Great Lakes

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Surgeonfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Surgeonfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Acanthuroidei; family Acnathuridae

Deep bodied, laterally compressed fishes; very small fine "picking" mouths, often on slightly extended snout; slightly concave forehead; dorsal & anal fins long and continuous, with spinous and soft-rayed portions; razor-like blades for defense on caudal peduncle, 1 or 2 on each side, fixed or retractable; common coral reef inhabitant

All tropical and subtropical seas; NO BC; SW

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Cutlassfishes, snake-mackerels - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Cutlassfishes, snake-mackerels

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Scombroidei; familiy Trichiuridae

Body very elongate & strongly compressed, sword-like; pointed heads; long protruding lower jaws usually with large fang-like teeth; no scales; very long single dorsal with spines and rays, sometimes notched; very slender caudal peduncle with caudal fin small and forked or absent; pectoral fins are small and relatively low on body; pelvic fins are absent or rudimentary (small scales under pectoral fins

Typically trropical Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans, one deep-sea species in BC, frost fish Benthodesmus simonyi (very rare!); BC; SW

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Barracudas - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Barracudas

Class Actinopterygii; suporder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Scombroidei; family Sphyraenidae

Moderately large, elongate fusiform predatory fish; long pointed head; projecting lower jaw, very well-toothed mouth; 1st dorsal is small and spinous, situated above pelvic fins, which are relatively far back on body for a derived fish (fast swimming predator); 2nd dorsal fin widely separated from 1st, far back on body, above similar sized anal fin; moderately forked caudal fin

Typically coastal, tropical to subtropical Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans; BC; SW

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Tunas, mackerels - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Tunas, mackerels

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Scombroidei; family scombridae

Highly fusiform fishes with conical head and fused premaxilla; body with 2 separate dorsal fins, depressible into grooves; 2nd dorsal fin is soft-rayed, and like the anal fin, is followed by 5-12 finlets; pelvic fins are thoracic; scales are cylcoid and usually small; 2 keels on narrow caudal peduncle; highly forked/lunate caudal fin; some species are endothermic; vs Carangidae, no free-floating anal spine, no protrusible premaxilla, no lateral scutes, small cycloid scales, and finless head

Tropical & temperate oceans, Atlantic and Pacific Canadian waters; BC; SW --> chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and the albacore tuna Thunnus alalunga are 2 of 5 species found in BC

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Butterfishes, pompanos, pomfrets - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Butterfishes, pompanos, pomfrets

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Stramoateoidei; family Stromateidae

Body usually very deep and laterally compressed; pelvic fins ABSENT vs Bramidae which have pelvic fins; continuous dorsal & anal fins long; narrow caudal peduncal with lunate caudal fin

Coastal Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans; BC; SW

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Gouramies, Siamese fighting fishes, paradise fishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Gouramies, Siamese fighting fishes, paradise fishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Anabatoidei; family Osphronemidae

Diverse group of generally small fishes; all have labyrinth-like accessory breathing organs above gills ie can BREATHE AIR; elongate pelvic rays/fins; males provide parental care through the use of bubble nest to which tehy attach and defend their eggs or through mouth brooding; commercially important (part of rice patties harvest) and aquarium trade

India through Southeast Asia; NO BC; FW

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Snakeheads - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Snakeheads

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Channoidei; family Channidae

Elongate round bodied fishes are voracious predators who can breathe air through the use of labyrinth-like accessory organs above gills; able to move across land; long dorsal and anal fins without spines; lower jaw protrudes above upper jaw; anterior nostril often has pronounced tube; superficially looks like an Amiidae bowfin, but pelvic fins are further forward, much longer anal fin, protrusible premaxilla, and no gular plate

Tropical Africa and SE Asia; INTRO'D BC; FW

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13

What are the traits found in order Pleuronectiformes? What families and species are examined in lab from this group?

Mostly marine and brackish, but there are some purely freshwater species

Large assemblage of fishes (678 species), many are very commercially important and some are very popular sports fishes

All linked by the fact that adults are bilaterally asymmetrical with one eye migrating to the oter side of teh head during metamorphosis from larval stage

There are 14 families (5 considered in lab) and 2 suborders

Suborder Psettodoidei

  1. family Psettodidae, spiny turbot

Suborder Pleuronectoidei

  1. family Bothidae, lefteye flounder, sandabs
  2. family Pleuronectidae, righteye flounders (halibut, sole, flounders)
  3. family Cynoglossidae, tonguefishes
  4. familyi Soleidae, true soles

 

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Spiny turbots - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Spiny turbots 

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomoprha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pstetodoidei; family Psettodidae

Most primitive of extant flatfishes; looks more like a "normal fish" than other flatfishes; may be dextral (right-eyed) or sinistral (left-eyed); pelvic fins nearly symmetrical; middle eye sits on top of head ie cyclops-like as if migration incomplete; dorsal fin doesn't extend onto head; very large well toothed mouth 

Tropical, Indian & Indo-Pacific oceans, none in Canada; NO BC; SW

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Left-eye flounders, sandabs - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Left-eye flounders, sandabs

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Bothidae

Looks like a typical flatfish but eyes are on the left side of fish only (only starry flounders, family Pleuronectidae are dextral and sinistral); pelvic fins slightly assymetrical, where base of one is longer than the other

Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans, 15 spps in Atlantic Canada; 2 spps in BC; SW

 

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How does one determine which side of a Pleuronectiformes the eyes are found on?

  1. Point head of fish towards the left
  2. Make sure the ventral side of the fish, ie where pelvic fins are, is nearest you
  3. If eyes are facing up = left-eyed fish
  4. if eyes are facing down = right-eyed fish

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Righteye flounders (halibut, sole & flounders = common names) - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Species and families examined in lab?

Righteye flounders (halibut, sole & flounders = common names)

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Perciformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Eyes almost always dextral (right-eyed), with the exception of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus

Arctic, Pacific. Atlantic and Indian oceans, on all coasts of Canada with 19 spps in Pacific Can and 8 spps in Atlantic Can; BC; SW

A) Family Pleuronectidae

  1. Atheresthes stomias, arrowtooth flounder
  2. Hippoglossus stenolepis, Pacific halibut
  3. Errex zachirus, rex sole
  4. Platichthys stellatus, starry flounder
  5. Parophrys vetulus, English sole
  6. Eopsetta jordani, Petrale sole

B) Family Cynoglossidae

C) Family Soleidae

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Arrowtooth flounder - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Arrowtooth flounder

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Species Atheresthes stomias

Right eyed, dextral; eyed side uniform dark greyish brown to olive brown; blind side dirty white to light grey; scales darker at edges; body shape elongate diamond; caudal fin crescent-shaped, slightly indented; lateral line makes a gradual rise over pectoral fins ie nearly straight with slight curve over pectorals; accessory dorsal branch ABSENT; mouth very large with 2 rows of large, sharp, arrow-shaped teeth; maxillary extends beyond posterior margin of lower eye; no fang-like tooth on vomer; left eye on dorsal ridge, visible from blind side; 2 gill rakers on the second upper arch; anal spine absent; pre-opercle = C-shaped not angular; anterior nostril on blind side has small flap; dorsal fin origin at middle of eye

North Pacific; BC; SW

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Pacific halibut - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Pacific halibut

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Species Hippoglossus stenolepis

Almost always right eyed, dextral; eyed side greenish brown to dark brown or black with lighter blotches; blind side white to milky white; dorsal fin extends past eye; body large and stout with elongate diamond shape; caudal fin has crescent shape, often indented near edges ie double truncate; lateral line has high arch/curves over pectoral fins; accessory dorsal branch absent; mouth large with 2 rows of teeth on upper jaw and 1 row on lower jaw; maxillary reaches below middle of lower eye; area between eyes flat to slightly concave; anal spine present; scales small and smooth on both sides of body

North Pacific Ocean; BC; SW

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Rex sole - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Rex sole

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleornectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Species Errex zachirus (aka Glyptocephalus zachirus)

Right-eyed, dextral; eyed side uniform light brown to gray; edges of dorsal and ventral fins dark or dusky; pectoral fin on eyed side VERY LONG and mostly black; blind side off-white to dusky; body elongate; caudal fin rounded with rays longest in center, forming a broad V; lateral line nearly straight; mouth VERY SMALLmaxillary extends to below anterior edge of lower eye; snout rounded; eyes large with ridge between eyes; strong anal spine; scales small

North Pacific; BC; SW

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Starry flounder - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Species; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Starry flounder

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Species Platichthys stellatus

Belongs to the right-eyed family, but can also be left-eyed, dextral or sinistral; eyed side olive to dark brown or almost black; unpaired fins white to yellow to orange with black bars; blind side white to creamy white; body shape oval; caudal fin nearly square or slightly rounded; lateral line with slight curve over pectoral fin; accessory dorsal branch absent; mout small; maxillary extends below anterior to upper eye; space between eyes flat; head slender, pointed; anal spines strong; scattered rough tubercles (star-like scales) on eyed side

North Pacific; BC; SW

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English sole - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

English sole

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Right-eyed, sinistral; lateral line nearly straight with lsight curve; long accessory dorsal branch; caudal fin nearly square with slight point at center; upper eye visible from blind side; snout pointed; scales on rear = rough, on front half = smooth

Eastern Pacific; BC; SW

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Petrale sole - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Petrale sole

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Pleuronectidae

Right-eyed, distral; lateral line makes gradual rise over pectoral fin; large mouth, teeth not enlarged and in 2 rows on upper jaw; eyes medium-sized with broad space between them

Pacific ocean; BC; SW

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Tonguefishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Tonguefishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Cynoglossidae

Left-eyed, sinstral; tear-drop shape body with pointed caudal fin; dorsal and anal fins are confluent with caudal fin; eyes are very small, usually close together; mouth = asymetrical, sometimes (not always) hooked, subterminal

Tropical to subtropical seas, one species RARELY in Atlantic Can; NO BC; SW

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True soles - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

True soles

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Pleuronectiformes; suborder Pleuronectoidei; family Soleidae

Right-eyed, dextral; small, usually terminal mouths, sometimes slightly hooked; dorsal & anal fins free from caudal fin or united

Tropical to temperate seas, Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans; BC; SW

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What trait defines order Tetradontiformes?

What families and suborders are examined in lab?

Defined by the loss of many skull bones and the fusion of others

Suborder Balistoidei

  1. family Balistidae, triggerfishes
  2. familiy Monacanthidae, filefishes
  3. family Ostraciidae, boxfishes, cowfishes, trunkfishes

Suborder Tetradontoidei

  1. family Tetradontidae, puffers, pufferfishes
  2. family Diodontidae, porcupinefishes
  3. family Molidae, molas, ocean sunfishes

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Triggerfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Triggerfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Balistoidei; family Balistidae

Usually 3 strong spines in dorsal, 3rd spine sometimes small or missing; stouter, tougher than closely related filfefishes family Monacanthidae; heavy pelvic spine; mouth small but strong developed for crushing coral; ctenoid scales in regular series, platelike & rough i.e tough skin with trigger that lock

Tropical to warm temperate, Atlantic, Indian, & Pacific oceans; NO BC; SW

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Filefishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Filefishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Balistoidei; family Monacanthidae

Distinguised by having only a maximum of 2 dorsal spines, with 2nd much smaller or absent vs 1st spine; scales small in regular series; body prickly or furry to touch

Tropical Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans; NO BC; SW

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Boxfishes, cowfishes, trunkfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Boxfishes, cowfishes, trunkfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Balistoidei; family Ostraciidae

Body encased in bony carapace, only fins and mouth protruding out; pelvic fins absent; some are known to discharge toxic substances when disturbed which can kill other fish in confiend quarters.

Tropical Atlantic, Indian & Pacific oceans, rare in Atlantic Canada; NO BC; SW

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Puffers, pufferfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Puffers, pufferfishes 

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Tetradontoidei; family Tetradontidae

Body inflatable, naked or with small prickles; 4 fused teeth in jaws, 2 fused identifiable on upper and lower jaw; the flesh and viscera of some species contains the alkaloid poison tetraodotoxin which can be lethal

Tropical and subtropical, Atlantic, Indian, & Pacifc oceans, rare in Atlantic Canada; NO BC; SW, some FW

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Porcupinefishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Porcupinefishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Tetradontoidei; family Diodontidae

Body inflatable, covered in well-developed sharp spines (in some species the spines erect only when inflated); 2 fused teeth in jaws; parrot-like beak

Tropical Atlantic, Indian & Pacific waters, rare in Atlantic Canada; NO BC; SW

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Molas, ocean sunfishes - Class; Superorder; Order; Suborder; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

Molas, ocean sunfishes

Class Actinopterygii; superorder Percomorpha; order Tetradontiformes; suborder Tetradontoidei; family Molidae

Strange laterally compressed, deep-bodied fishes of immense size with male killer whale-like large single dorsal & matching anal fin; small mouth with 2 fused teeth; no caudal fin or caudal peduncle, where caudal area reduced to a leathery flap or "pseudo-caudal"

Tropical to warm temperate seas, pelagic, Atlantic, Indian &Pacific oceans, occurring both in Pacific and Atlantic Canada; BC; SW

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33

What are the charcterisitcs of Class Sarcopterygii?

What fish is exmained in lab? Infraclass? Order?

Made up of lobed-fin fishes, and precludes the rise of tetrapods

Infraclass Dipnoi - lungfishes, where brachiostegals and gulars absent; diphycercal tail confluent with dorsal & anal fins; plate-like crushing teeth, fast strong and deadly

Order Lepidosireniformes - South American and African lungfishes: pectoral & pelvic fins filamentous, without rays; scales small; paired air bladder; larvae with external gills; adults estivate or bury themselves in the dry season

Family Protopteridae - African lungfishes

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African lungfish - Class; Subclass; Infraclass; Order; Family; Characteristics; Canadian distribution; FW/SW?

African lungfishes

Class Sarcopterygii; subclass Dipnotetrapodomorpha; infraclass Dipnoi; order Lepidosireniformes; family Protopteridae

Maximum size to 180cm in Protopterus aethiopicus; young fishes active by night, adults are active by day; food consists mostly of hard-bodied invertebrates with mollusks, hence strong jaws and crushing teeth; gain 90% of their oxygen via AIR BREATHING, considered as obligate air-breathers as adults; in the dry season they burrow into mud, with their head pointed up, secrete a mucous layer which dries into hard mud cocoon, slowing their breathign and heart rates, living off of stored energy until rainy season

Central & southern Africa, occurring in both lakes and rivers, including variety of swamp habitats; NO BC; FW

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