lab exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lab exam 4 Deck (85):
1

gyri

smooth up folded areas of the cerebral cortex

2

sulci

shallow grooves between folds

3

fissues

deep grooves between folds

4

longitudinal cerebral fissure

divides cerebrum into right and left hemispheres

5

central sulcus

separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe

6

precentral sulcus

shallow groove anterior to central sulcus

7

postcentral sulcus

shallow groove posterior to central sulcus

8

lateral sulcus

divides parietal lobe from temporal lobe

9

parieto-occipital sulcus

separates parietal lobe from occipital lobe (not visible on brain surface)

10

Precentral gyrus

upfold area between central sulcus and postcentral gyrus

11

what simple tests could you perform to demonstrate normal function of the cerebellum

balance and coordination/walk along line

12

why is the cerebrum convoluted?

to make more space

13

what is the purpose of the sulci and gyri

so that we can fit more neurons

14

does each cerebral hemisphere perform the exact same function?

no, the right has 3D, sensory, environmental info and the left controls language, math, reading and writing

15

why is a blow to the back of the head often fatal?

it damages the medulla

16

how are the human brain and sheep brain..
-similar
-diiferent

-same basic structures
-smaller, convolutions are less prominent, olfactory bulbs are larger

17

nucleus
-definition
-found where

-group/collection of cell bodies of neurons
-in CNS

18

tract

bundle of axons

19

why is the term basal ganglia incorrect

ganglia is a group of cell bodies in CNS

20

gray matter

butterfly or H-shaped area in center of spinal cord

21

gray commissure

center part of gray matter containing "butterfly body" or horizontal bar of letter H

22

central canal

small space in the center of the gray commissure that is continuous with ventricles and contains CSF

23

what is white matter?
-gray matter?

-myelinated axons
-unmyelinated axons, cell bodies of neurons

24

deep reflexes
-definition
-contains

stretches the muscle and activates a receptor deep within the muscle called the muscle spindle
-intrafusal fibers (supplied by sensory neurons)

25

extrafusal fibers

muscle fibers that perform the muscle's work of contracting

26

superficial reflexes
-definition
-result from

initiated by special receptors in the skin
-painful stimuli, temp changes or touch

27

patellar reflex
-receptor
-sensory nerve
-location of integrative center
-motor nerve
-effector

-intrafusal fibers of muscle
-spinal nerve
-spinal cord
-spinal nerve
-extrafusal fibers of quads

28

hyperreflexia

exaggerated reflexes that indicate damage to spinal cord, spinal nerves, skeletal muscles or higher brain centers

29

hyporelexia

weak reflexes that indicate damage to spinal cord, spinal nerves, skeletal muscles or higher brain centers

30

how is the knee jerk response affected when the Jendrassic maneuver is performed?

increase (hyperreflexia)

31

how is the knee jerk response affected when the muscles are fatigued due to excerise?

decrease (hyporeflexia)

32

what happened to the right pupil when it was exposed to the light?
-left?

-constrict
-constrict

33

where is the receptor located

in the retina

34

what is the afferent neuron in the eye

in the optic nerve

35

spinal frog
1. resting position
2. tilt
3. righting from back to front
4. noise
5. acetic acid
6. toe pinch
7. swimming

1. not present
2. present
3. present
4. not present
5. present
6. present
7. present

36

double pithed frog
1. resting position
2. tilt
3. righting from back to front
4. noise
5. acetic acid
6. toe pinch
7. swimming

all not present

37

which activites require an intact brain

noise and resting

38

which reflexes require the spinal cord only

acid, toe pinch, swimming, righting

39

which reflex could be classified as superficial?

acid and toe pitch

40

which reflex could be classified as a deep reflex?

swimming and righting

41

eyebrows

prevents sun and perspiration from entering eyes

42

eyelids
-2 functions
-contains what

1. prevents foreign objects and sun from entering the eyes
2. covers the eyes during sleep
-small glands that secrete oil onto the eye to prevent tears from evaporating

43

eyelashes

initiates reflex blinking when stimulated

44

conjunctiva
-definition
-produces
-contains

thin membrane that lines eyelids and covers eyeball up to the edge of the cornea
-produces mucus to moisten eye
-contains blood vessels that dilate when the eyes are blood shot

45

lacrimal apparatus

a group of structures that produces tears, secretes them on the surface of the eye and carries them away

46

what do tears contain
-4 things

1. salt
2. mucus
3. antibodies
4. antibacterial enzyme lysozyme

47

lacrimal gland

produces tears

48

lacrimal gland ducts

small ducts that drain tears from the lacrimal gland and the conjunctiva

49

lacrimal canals

passageways that drain tears reaching the medial eye to lacrimal sac

50

nasolacrimal duct

carries tears from nasolacrimal sac into the nasal cavity

51

superior rectus

moves the eye up

52

inferior rectus

moves the eye down

53

lateral rectus

moves the eye laterally

54

medial rectus

moves the eye medially

55

superior oblique

moves the eye laterally and down

56

inferior oblique

moves the eye medially and up

57

Outer fibrous tunic
-includes 2 things

1. sclera
2. cornea

58

sclera

white of the eye and maintains the shape of the eyeball
-consists of white fibrous connective tissue

59

cornea

transparent avascular tissue

60

middle vascular tunic
-includes 3 things

1. choroid
2. ciliary body
3. iris

61

ciliary body

contains a smooth muscle called the ciliary muscle that controls lens shape during focus

62

choroid

numerous blood vessels provide nutrition and absorbs light

63

iris

contains the pupil and controls the amount of light entering through the pupil

64

inner neural tunic
-includes what

retina

65

retina
-5 features

1. rods
2. cones
3. optic disk
4. macula lutea
5. fovea centralis

66

rods

responsible fror vision in dim light

67

cones

responsible for color vision and acuity

68

optic disk

point of retina where optic nerve exits

69

macula lutea

yellow spot lateral to optic disc

70

aqueous humor
-location
-function
-consistancy
-site and rate of formation
-drainage

-anterior to lens in anterior chamber; b/n lens and cornea
-maintains shape of eye and interocular pressure
-water
-ciliary body
-canal of schlemm

71

vitreous humor
-location
-function
-consistancy
-site and rate of formation
-drainage

-posterior chamber, posterior lens
-transmits light, holds retina against choroid, maintains interocular pressure
-gel-like
-lasts for lifetime
-none

72

visual acuity

amount of detail that you can see

73

astigmatism

produced by an abnormal curvature of the lens and/or cornea

74

blind spot

the area where images focused on the optic nerve cannot be seen

75

near point

the closest distance at which an object can be seen in sharp focus

76

color blindness

an impaired ability to distinguish colors
-occurs when one of the types of cones is missing

77

dominant eye

one that you rely on the most

78

optical illusion

a false interpretation of a visual sensation

79

pinna

a flexible flap attached to the head

80

external auditory ear

a one-inch passageway that connects the pinna to the eardrum
-contains small hairs and ceruminous glands which secrete ear wax

81

tympanic membrane

a thin membrane which separates the outer and middle ear

82

auditory ossicles
-contains 3 things

1. malleus
2. incus
3. stapes

83

auditory tube

equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear with the atmospheric pressure

84

static equilibrium

maintains the position of the head in response to changes in the pull of gravity

85

dynamic equalibrium

maintains balance in response to changes in direction of movement