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Flashcards in Lab Practical Exam I Deck (100)
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Which of the Quadriceps Femoris muscles is a flexor of the hip?

A. Vastus Medialis
B. Vastus Lateralis
C. Vastus Intermedialis
D. Rectus Femoris

D. Rectus Femoris


Which muscles are powerful extensors of the stifle?

Quadriceps Femoris:

Rectus Femoris
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Medialis
Vastus Intermedialis


What are the Small Pelvic Association Muscles?

Internal Obturator
Quadratus Femoris
External Obturator


Which of the following muscles inserts at the intertrochanteric crest of the femur?

A. Internal Obturator
B. Quadratus Femoris
C. Gemelli
D. External Obturator

B. Quadratus Femoris muscle


Which muscle group is an extensor of the hip and flexors of the stifle?

Hamstring Muscles


What muscles make up the common calcanean tendon?

Biceps Femoris
Superficial Digital Flexor


What structure is found beneath the infraspinatus muscle?

Subtendinous synovial bursa


What is the caudal border of the Femoral Triangle? What is this muscles action?

Pectineus muscle: adducts the limb


Which of the following muscles adducts the limb, flexes the stifle, and extends the hip?

A. Adductor
B. Gracilis
C. Sartorius
D. Pectineus

B Gracilis muscle


Name all the borders of the Femoral Triangle

Base: abdominal wall and inguinal ligament
Caudal border: Pectineus muscle
Cranial border: caudal belly of the sartorius muscle


Which is the only gluteal muscle that does not insert at the greater trochanter of the femur? Where does it insert, and what is its action?

Superficial Gluteal muscle : inserts at the third trochanter of the femur and it extends the hip and abducts the limb


True/False: The cranial tibial muscle rotates the paw medially so the plantar surface faces laterally.

False: the cranial tibial muscle rotates the paw laterally so the plantar surface faces medially


Which muscles does the crural extensor retinaculum hold down?

cranial tibial muscle and the long digital extensor muscle


What are the hypaxial muscles?

Longus capitis
Longus Coli
Serratus ventralis- cervicis and thoracis
Serratus dorsalis - cranialis and caudalis
External intercostal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles


Which direction does the muscle fibers of the external intercostal muscles run?



What are the inspiratory muscles?

External Intercostal muscles
Serratus Dorsalis cranialis
Rectus Thoracis


Name the three main systems of the expaxial muscles and what they are divided into.

Iliocostalis System (lumborum, thoracis)

Longissiumus System (lumborum, cervicis, capitis)

Transversospinalis System
-Semispinalis Capitis (Complexus, and Biventer cervicis)


What are the expiratory muscles?

Internal intercostals
Serratus dorsalis caudalis
Transversus thoracis
Abdominal muscles


Which ligament is the continuation of the Supraspinous ligament and can be found from T1 to C2?

Nuchal ligament


What is known as the "hooks" in bovine?

Tuber coxae


What are the boundaries of the pelvic inlet?

Lateral: arcuate line of the ilium
ventral: pecten of the pubis
dorsal: promontory of the sacrum


What are the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?

Lateral: Sacrotuberous ligament
ventral: Ischiatic arch
dorsal: first caudal vertebra


What ligament is present in equine that limits their range of motion of kicking to the side and makes hip luxation very rare?

Acessory ligament of the femoral head


A rupture of which ligament allows the forward movement of the tibia (tibia moves cranially) while the femur stays in place?

Cranial cruciate ligament


If we have a partial tear, just the gastrocnemius, what will occur? What about a complete rupture?

-There will be a dropped hock and a curled toe if there was a partial tear

-The animal would be flat footed with a dropped hock and lameness if all tendons have ruptured


What tendon gives rise to the Accessory ligament of the femoral head?

Prepubic Tendon


True/False: The Third trochanter is prominent in ruminants and absent in horses.

False. It is prominent in horses and absent in ruminants


What muscles are involved in the Reciprocal Apparatus and what is the purpose of this mechanism?

Perioneus Tertius muscle, the Gastrocnemeus muscle, and the SDF. Allows the stifle and the hock to flex and extend together.


What is considered the "Pin Bone" of bovine?

Tuber Ischia


True.False: The "hunters bump" in equine is known as the tuber sacrale.



What are the main components of the Patellar Locking Mechanism?

1. Medial Ridge of the Femoral Trochlea
2. Patella
3. Quadriceps Femoris muscles
4. Medial Patellar Ligament
5. Lateral Patellar Ligament
6. Intermediate Patellar Ligament
7. Patellar Fibrocartilage


Which two joint capsules communicate directly 65% of the time?

Femoropatellar joint capsule and the Medial Femorotibial joint capsule


True/False: The proximal intertarsal joint and the distal intertarsal joint "always" communicate.

False. The Tibiotarsal (Tarsocrural) joint and the Proximal Intertarsal Joint "always" communicate

"Always" - Tibiotarsal joint (Tarsocrural) & Proximal Intertarsal joint
"Never" - Proximal Intertarsal joint & Distal Intertarsal joint
"Sometimes" - Distal Intertarsal joint & Tarsometatarsal joint


What is the vertebral formula for the canine/feline?

C7 - T13 - L7 - S3 - Cd20-23


What is the vertebral formula for equine?

C7 - T18 - L6 - S5 - Cd15-21


What is the vertebral formula for bovine?

C7 - T13 - L6 - S5 - Cd18-20


True/False. The Atlas contains a dens and articulates with the occipital condyles.

False. The Atlas (C1) not does contain a dens. The Axis (C2) is the one that contains the dens.


What characteristics distinguishes C7 from the other cervical vertebrae? (Hint: this allows us to determine the transition from cervical to thoracic vertebrae)

C7 is the only cervical vertebrae that does not have a transverse foramina and it has a high spinous process


Which ribs are considered the "true ribs" and where do they connect to?

1-9 and they connect to the sternum (vertebrosternal)


What do ribs 10-12 articulate with?

Cartilage of cranial rib (vertebrocartilaginous)


True/False. The heads of ribs 11-13 articulate with the caudal costal fovea of proceeding vertebrae.

False. They articulate with the same vertebrae - the cranial costal fovea


Which joint is considered the "yes" joint? The "no" joint?

Atlanto - occipital joint is the "yes" joint
Atlanto - axial joint is the "no" joint


What are the three ligaments of the dens and what do they do?

Alar ligament - attaches the dens to the occipital bone
Apical ligament - attaches the dens to the skull
Transverse atlantal ligament - holds dense against ventral arch


Which ligament connects the head of a rib to the head on the other side?

A. Costotransverse ligament
B. Intercapital ligament
C. Dorsal longitudinal ligament
D. Ventral longitudinal ligament

B. Intercapital ligament

- Costotransverse ligament: ribs to vertebrae

- Dorsal longitudinal ligament: on the dorsal surface of the bodies of the vertebrae (C2 to Cd1)

- Ventral longitudinal ligament: on the ventral surface of the bodies of the vertebrae (C2 to sacrum)


what is located in the cervical visceral space?

Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
Carotid Sheath- common carotid arteries, vagosympathetic trunks, and internal jugular veins


What are the borders of the carpal canal?

Dorsal: Palmar Carpal Ligament
Lateral: Accessory Carpal bone
Palmar: Palmar flexor retinaculum


What are the eight Extrinsic Muscles?

1. Superficial Pectorals
2. Deep Pectorals
3. Brachiocephalicus
4. Omotransversarius
5. Trapezius
6. Rhomboideus
7. Latissimus Dorsi
8. Serratus Ventralis


What is the name of the sleeve made by the tendon of the SDF where the tendon of the DDF passes at the level of the fetlock?

Flexor Manica


What is the name of the joint at the fetlock?

A. Carpometacaral joint
B. Intercarpal Joint
C. Metacarpophalangeal joint
D. Tibiotarsal joint

C. Metacarpophalangeal joint


What are the components of the Stay Apparatus?

1. Tendon of the Biceps Brachii muscle
2. Lacterus Fibrosus
3. Extensor Carpi Radialis muscle
4. Triceps brachii muscle
5. SDF and proximal check ligament
6. DDF and the distal check ligament
7. Common digital extensor tendon
8. Interosseus (medial and lateral extensor branches)
9. Proximal sesamoid bones and sesamoidean ligaments (cruciate, oblique, and straight)


What are the components of the Suspensory Apparatus?

1. Interosseus
2. Proximal Sesamoid bones
3. Sesamoidean ligaments (cruciate, oblique, and straight)
4. SDF and proximal check ligament
5. DDF and distal check ligament


Which are the three joints in the carpus ("knee") of the equine thoracic limb?

Radiocarpal Joint (Antebrachiocarpal Joint)
Midcarpal Joint
Carpometacarpal Joint


What is the name for the elbow joint?

Humeroradioulnar Joint


What is the name of the muscle that gives the horse's shoulder a smooth round appearance?

A. Sternomandibularis muscle
B. Sternohyoideus muscle
C. Subscapularis muscle
D. Subclavius muscle

D. Subclavius muscle


What muscles form the ventral and dorsal border of the jugular groove in the horse?

Ventral border: Sternomandibularis muscle
Dorsal border: Brachiocephalicus muscle


What two joints in the equine thoracic limb communicate?

Midcarpal joint and the Carpometacarpal joint


True/False. The Chestnut in the equine is equivalent to the metacarpal pad of the dog.

False. The Chestnut is equivalent to the carpal pad of the dog. The Ergot is equivalent to the metacarpal pad of the dog.


Name the three germinal tissues of the hoof.

1. Perioplic Corium
2. Coronary Corium
3. Laminar Corium (sensitive/dermal lamina and insensitive/epidermal lamina)


Which bones are considered the splint bones and which is the cannon bone?

Metacarpal II and IV are the splint bones
Metacarpal III is the cannon bone


True/False. Synarthroses is a semimovable joint and Amphiarthroses is a freely moveable joint.

False: Synarthrosis = immovable joints
Amphiarthroses = semimovable joints
Diarthroses = Freely moveable joints


Which of the following animals does not have a true acromion of the spine of the scapula?

A. Cat
B. Dog
C. Bovine
D. Horse
E. A & D
F. B & C

E. A & D

Cat's have a suprahamete process and hamete process and Horses have NO acromion


What muscle extends the shoulder and flexes the elbow and what is its antagonist muscle?

Biceps brachii.
-The triceps brachii is the antagonist, they all extend the elbow and the long head flexes the shoulder.


Which of the following muscles inserts on the dorsal aspect of the metacarpal tuberosities of metacarpal II and III?

A. Long digital extensor
B. Extensor Carpi Radialis
C. Flexor Carpi Radialis
D. Lateral digital extensor

B. Extensor Carpi Radialis

Flexor Carpi Radialis is on the palmar surface of proximal aspect of MC II and III


Which of the following muscles inserts on the distal phalanx of digits 3, 4, and 5 and originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus?

A. Lateral digital extensor
B. Common digital extensor
C. Superficial digital flexor
D. Flexor carpi ulnaris

A. Lateral digital extensor


Which of the following muscles inserts on the distal phalanx of digits 2, 3, 4, and 5 and originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus?

A. Ulnaris Lateralis
B. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
C. Superficial Digital Flexor
D. Common Digital Extensor

D. Common Digital Extensor


True/False. The deltoideus muscle of the horse has a scapular part and an acromial part.

False. Horses lack an acromion. Therefore, they do not have an acromial part of the deltoideus muscle.


What muscle is considered the "sling muscle" and depresses the scapula?

Serratus Ventralis


Which three muscles are extensors of the elbow?

-Tensor Fasciae antebrachii muscle
-Triceps Brachii muscle
-Anconeus muscle


Which muscles (6) are considered shoulder stabilizers?

-Supraspintanus muscle
-Infraspinatus muscle
-Subscapularis muscle
-Coracobrachialis muscle
-Teres major muscle
-Teres minor muscle


What muscles (5) are extensors of the shoulder?

-Infraspinatus muscle
-Supraspinatus muscle
-Subscapularis muscle
-Coracobrachialis muscle
-Biceps brachii muscle


Which muscles (5) are flexors of the shoulder?

-Deltoideus muscle
-Teres minor muscle
-Teres major muscle
- Long head of the Triceps brachii muscle
- Latissimus Dorsi muscle


Which muscles are flexors of the elbow?

-Biceps brachii muscle
-Brachialis muscle


What ligament holds down the Flexor Manica in the thoracic limb and the pelvic limb?

Palmar Annular Ligament - Thoracic Limb
Plantar Annular Ligament - Pelvic Limb


What muscle rotates the paw medially so the plantar surface faces laterally (pronation)?

Fibularis Longus


What ligament holds down both the SDF and DDF tendons at the level of the proximal phalanx of the digits?

Proximal Digital Annular Ligament


Which of the following muscles flexes the hip?

A. Pectineus
B. Gracilis
C. Deep Gluteal
D. Iliopsoas

D. Iliopsoas


What attaches the caudal part of the lateral meniscus to the intercondylar fossa of the femur?

Meniscofemoral Ligament


What is the name of the ligament that anchors the distal sesamoid bone (navicular) to the distal phalanx (coffin bone)?

Impar Ligament / Navicular Ligament


What ligament runs from the transverse process of the last sacral and first caudal vertebrae to the lateral angle of the ischiatic tuberosity?

Sacrotuberous Ligament


What would be the cranial costal fovea of rib 1? What would be the caudal costal fovea of rib 1?

Cranial costal fovea: T1
Caudal costal fovea: C7


What extends from the greater to lesser tubercle over the intertubercular groove and holds down the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle?

Transverse Humeral Retinaculum


Where can you find the superficial cervical lymph node/ subscapular lymph node?

At the ventral border of the omotransversarius just cranial to the scapula


Which bursas can you find in the thoracic limb and which muscles are they associated with?

-Infraspinatus muscle: Subtendinous bursa
-Biceps Brachii muscle: Subtendinous bursa/ intertubercular bursa
-Long Head of the Triceps Brachii muscle: Subtendinous bursa


What muscles in the pelvic limb have bursas?

-Internal Obturator muscle - subtendinous bursa
-Between the SDF and the Gastrocnemeus there is an intertendinous calcanean bursa
-SDF - subcutaneous calcanean bursa


True/False: The piriformis muscle is considered part of the middle gluteal muscle.



Where can you find the popliteal lymph node?

At the caudal border of the biceps femoris muscle.


Which muscle tenses the fascia lata, flexes the hip, and extends the stifle?

Tensor faciae latae muscle


What is the importance of the cunean tendon?

It is a palpable reference point of the Distal Intertarsal Joint and can be cut to reduce pressure on arthritis of the distal hock joints.


List the joints of the equine pelvic limb starting from the hip joint to the coffin joint.

-Coxofemoral Joint (hip)
-Stifle Joint (femoropatellar, medial femorotibial and lateral femorotibial joint capsules)
-Tibiotarsal Joint
-Proximal Intertarsal Joint
-Distal Intertarsal Joint
-Tarsometatarsal Joint
-Metatarsophalangeal Joint (Fetlock)
-Proximal Interphalangeal Joint (Pastern)
-Distal Interphalangeal Joint (Coffin)


Which of the following is false about the popliteus muscle?

A. The tendon of origin passes deep to the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle
B. It inserts on the lateral condyle of the femur
C. It flexes the stifle and rotates the leg (crus) medially
D. There is a popliteal sesamoid bone in its tendon of origin

B. It inserts on the lateral condyle of the femur

-It actually inserts on the proximal and caudomedial aspect of the tibia and its origin is the lateral codyle of the femur


Where can you find the Navicular Bursa?

In between the DDF and the navicular bone (distal sesamoid)


List the joints of the euqine throacic limb starting from the shoulder down to the coffin.

-Glenohumeral Joint (Shoulder)
-Humeroradioulnar Joint (Elbow)
-Radiocarpal Joint (Antebrachiocarpal Joint)
-Midcarpal Joint
-Carpometacarpal Joint
-Metacarpophalangeal Joint ("Fetlock")
-Proximal Interphalangeal Joint ("Pastern")
-Distal Interphalangeal Joint ("Coffin")


What is the name of the sesamoid bones located at the tendon of origin of the lateral and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle?



True/False: Cat and Porcine do not have a nuchal ligament.



Which muscle of the equine pelvic limb has an accessory gluteal muscle and has a tendon affiliated with the trochanteric bursa?

A. Superficial Gluteal
B. Middle Gluteal
C. Deep Gluteal
D. Large Gluteal

B. Middle Gluteal


What is the name of the first and last sterebra?

Manubrium (first)
Xyphoid process (last)


True/False: The spinous process of the first 10 thoracic vertebrae are much larger than the rest.

False. T1-T9 are much larger than the rest but starting at T8 the spinous process becomes progressively smaller.


Where can you find a synovial bursae interposed between the funicular part of a ligament and certain bony prominences in the large animal?

A. Nuchal Ligament
B. Supraspinous Ligament
C. Dorsal Longitudinal Ligament
D. Ventral Longitudinal Ligament

A. Nuchal Ligament


Which ligament extends between vertebral arches to cover the epidural interarcuate space between the articular process?

A. Interspinous Ligament
B. Suraspinous Ligament
C. Yellow Ligament
D. Nuchal Ligament

C. Yellow Ligament


True/Falst. The seventh lumbar vertebra is slightly shorter than the other lumbar vertebrae.