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Which genetic condition is due to cartilage maldevelopment, causing the arrested growth of long bones and resulting in disproportionate dwarves?



Which law states that normal bone remodels in response to stress place upon it?

Wolff's Law


_____ are semimovable joints and ___ are immovable joints.

Amphiarthroses, Synarthroses


Which of the following are considered diarthroses joints, freely moveable?

a. Synostosis
b. Syndesmosis
c. Synovial joints
d. Synchondrosis

c. Synovial joints


True/False. Fibrous joint is a strong fibrous connective tissue between articulating bones that are freely moveable.

False. They have little to no movement


What are the three different fibrous joint types?



Which of the following is an example of gomphosis?

a. Tooth in an alveolus united by periodontal ligament
b. Seams of the bones of the skull
c. Bones joined by interosseous ligaments
d. All the above

a. Tooth in an alveolus united by periodontal ligament


True/ False. Synchondrosis and Symphysis are considered cartilaginous joint types with a connecting medium of hyaline or fibrocartilage.



What are examples of hinge joints?

Humeroradioulnar joint
Metacarpophalangeal joint


True/False. Extension decreases angle between bones and Flexion increases angle between bones.

False. Flexion decreases the angle between bones and Extension increases the angle between bones to approximately 180 degrees.


What is the purpose of the stay apparatus?

-Reduce the energy expelled to stand: rest/ sleep while standing
-Make movement efficient


What is the name of the shoulder joint of the equine thoracic limb?

Glenohumeral Joint


Which joints make up the carpus "knee" of the equine thoracic limb?

-Radiocarpal (Antebrachiocarpal) Joint
-Midcapal Joint
-Carpometacarpal joint


What is the name of the elbow joint in the equine thoracic limb?

-Humeroradioulnar Joint


What joints are located from the fetlock down to the coffin?

-Metacarpophalangeal joint ("fetlock")
-Interphalangeal Joint ("pastern")
-Distal Interphalangeal Joint ("coffin")


True/False. A normal standing horse is in constant state of hyperextension of the fetlock joint.



What are the components of the Stay Apparatus?

-Tendon of the biceps branchii m.
-Lacterus fibrosus
-Extensor carpi radialis m.
-Triceps brachii m.
-SDF and proximal check ligament
-DDF and distal check ligament
-Common digital extensor tendon
-Interosseus and the medial and lateral extensor branches
-Proximal sesamoid bones and the sesamoidean ligaments (cruciate, straight, and oblique)


What prevents the shoulder from flexing and engages on the intermediate tubercle to cause the shoulder joint to lock?

Tendon of the biceps brachii m.


The carpus cannot flex unless the ____ is flaccid and the ____ prevents it from hyperextending.

Extensor capri radialis m.
Palmar carpal ligament


What are the borders of the carpal canal?

Dorsal: Palmar Carpal Ligament
Lateral: Accessory Carpal bone
Palmar: Palmar flexor retinaculum


What are the components of the suspensory apparatus of the equine thoracic limb?

-Interossus with its medial and lateral extensor branches
-Proximal Sesamoidean bones
-Sesamoidean ligaments (straight, cruciate, and oblique)
-SDF and the proximal check ligament
-DDF and the distal check ligament


____ counteract the flexion of the coffin joint and ____ counteract the hyperextension of the fetlock joint

Extensor branches of the interosseous
Distal sesamoidean ligaments


Which bones are fused in the canine carpus?

Radial and Intermediate carpal bones


True/False. Carpal bones 2 and 3, and Metacarpal bones 3 and 4 are fused in equine.

False. They're fused in the ox, Equine have no fused carpal bones


Which metacarpal bones bear the most weight in equine, and in ox?

Equine: Metacarpal III
Ox: Metacarpal III and IV


What joints in the canine are flexed and hyperextended to prevent collapse of the thoracic limb?

-Shoulder joint and elbow joint are flexed
-Carpus and metacarpophalangeal joints are hyperextended


What is affected if a canine is having trouble extending the carpus?

Extensors of the carpus must be affected


What is overstimulated if there is rigid extension of the elbow?

Overstimulation of the triceps brachii m.


Which muscle gives the horse's shoulder a smooth and round appearance?

Subclavius m.


Which muscles are rarely used but are a viable option for IM injection?

Pectoral m.