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Flashcards in Second LRC Deck (125)
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1

What are the four main quadrants of the abdominal wall?

-Craniodorsal quadrant
-Caudodorsal quadrant
-Cranioventral quadrant
-Caudoventral quadrant

2

Which of the following is part of the Cranial abdominal?

A. Xiphoid region
B. Umbilical region
C. Lateral abdominal regions (left and right)
D. Hypochondriac regions (left and right)
E. B and C
F. A and D

F. A and D

Xiphoid region and Hypochondriac regions (left and right)

3

What is part of the middle abdominal region?

-Umbilical region
-Lateral abdominal regions (left and right)

4

What is part of the caudal abdominal region?

-Pubic region
-Inguinal regions (left and right)

5

What are the four muscles of the abdominal wall?

1. External Abdominal Oblique
2. Internal Abdominal Oblique
3. Transversus Abdominis
4. Rectus Abdominis

6

True/ False. The fibers of the external abdominal oblique run cranioventral.

False. The fibers run caudoventral

7

What are the two tendons that make up the caudal border of the external abdominal oblique?

-Pelvic tendon
-Abdominal tendon

8

What are the three major openings that you can find in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique?

-Muscular lacuna (iliopsoas m.)
-Vascular lacuna (femoral vv.)
-Superficial inguinal ring (vaginal process/ tunic)

9

Which of the following is the origin of the internal abdominal oblique?

A. tuber coxae + inguinal ligament + thoracolumbar fascia
B. ribs and thoracolumbar fascia
C. transverse process of lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia
D. sternum and rib cartilages

A. tuber coxae + inguinal ligament + thoracolumbar fascia

10

Which muscle is considered to be a flexor of the vertebral column?

Rectus Abdominis

11

In which orientation do the fibers of the internal abdominal oblique run?

Cranioventral

12

What are the boundaries of the deep inguinal ring?

Cranial: caudal border of the internal abdominal oblique muscle
Medial: lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
Lateral and Caudal: inguinal ligament

13

True/False. The left paralumbar fossa gives access to the cecum in a horse.

False. The right paralumbar fossa gives access to the cecum in a horse

14

True/ Flase. The left paralumbar fossa gives access to the rumen in catle.

True

15

What is the cranioventral border of the paralumbar fossa in cattle?

A. tips of the lumbar transverse process
B. ridge of the internal abdominal oblique muscle
C. from the tuber coxae ventral end of the last rib
D. last rib

D. last rib

16

What are the borders of the paralumbar fossa in cattle?

-Base: tips of the lumbar transverse process
-Cranioventral: last rib
-Caudoventral: ridge of internal abdominal oblique muscle; from the tuber coxae to the ventral end of the last rib

17

What is the landmark for the paralumbar fossa in horses?

The tuber coxae

18

What is the caudal most edge of the pelvic tendon that attaches to the iliopubic eminence and prepubic tendon?

The inguinal ligament

19

What does the abdominal tendon of the external abdominal oblique contribute to that is most likely to rupture in a pregnant mare?

The prepubic tendon

20

Which muscle is most medially located (deepest) and has fibers that run transversely?

Transversus abdominis

21

Which muscle extends from the prepubic tendon to the sternum and is known as the "six pack" muscle due to its distinct transverse tendinous insertions?

Rectus Abdominis

22

The aponeurosis of which muscle(s) lie superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle near the pubis region?

A. Internal Abdominal Oblique
B. Transversus Abdominis
C. External Abdominal Oblique
D. All the above

D. All the above

23

True/False. The superficial inguinal ring is the opening in the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique muscle located between the pelvic and abdominal tendons.

False. It is the opening in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle.

24

What is the deep fascia of the trunk that supports the heavy weight of the abdominal viscera in both the horse and ox and consist largely of elastic tissue?

Tunica flava abdominis

25

What ligament extends laterally from the prepubic tendon in the horse?

The accessory ligament of the femoral head

26

What is done if there is a build up of gas in the rumen and/or cecum?

A trochar is used to puncture the dorsal aspect of the paralumbar fossa to relieve pain and bloating associated with gas build-up

27

Which of the following is the vertebral formula for the dog?

A. C7- T13 - L6 - S6- Cd 21-23
B. C7- T13 - L7 - S3- Cd 20-23
C. C7- T18 - L6 - S5- Cd 15-21
D. C7- T13 - L6 - S5- Cd 18-20

C. C7- T13 - L7 - S3- Cd 20-23

28

What is the vertebral formula for bovine?

C7- T13 - L6 - S5- Cd 18-20

29

What is the vertebral formula for the horse?

C7- T18 - L6 - S5- Cd 15-21

30

What is the name of the degenerative disease found mainly in the thoracic, lumbar and lumbosacral regions of the vertebrae?

Spondylosis deformans

31

A yappy little pup enters your clinic and you leave your newbie tech in the room dog-sitting as you step out to grab his vaccines. As you reenter, fluffy gets excited and jumps out of the vet tech’s restraint and nose dives onto the floor. Which of the following was most likely fractured/ruptured?

A. The dens
B. The apical ligament of the dens
C. The transverse ligament of the dens
D. The alar ligament of the axis

A. The dens

32

Which of the following muscles travels through the tarsal canal over the sustentaculum tali?

A. Medial digital flexor m.
B. Lateral digital flexor m.
C. Lateral digital extensor m.
D. Long digital extensor m.

B. Lateral digital flexor m.

33

An obese Labradoodle enters your clinic after a rough day of play time and is struggling to bear weight on his L hindlimb. Upon palpation during the physical exam you notice that when you evaluate that the dog has ruptured the cranial cruciate ligament. You came upon this DDx because you observed which of the following when you applied pressure on the knee joint?

A. The tibia slips cranially with respect to the femur
B. The distal femur slips cranially with respect to the tibia
C. The tibia slips caudally with respect to the femur
D. The distal femur slips laterally with respect to the tibia

A. The tibia slips cranially with respect to the femur

34

Which of the following knee joint stabilizers is most prone to tearing?

A. Lateral collateral ligament
B. Medial collateral ligament
C. Lateral meniscus
D. Medial meniscus

B. Medial collateral ligament

35

Which of the following is NOT a major muscle of inspiration?

A. The diaphragm
B. Serratus dorsalis cranialis m.
C. Scalenus m.
D. Serratus dorsalis caudalis m.

D. Serratus dorsalis caudalis m.

36

What muscles are involved in the Reciprocal Apparatus and what is the purpose of this mechanism?

Perioneus Tertius muscle, the Gastrocnemeus muscle, and the SDF. Allows the stifle and the hock to flex and extend together.

37

Which of the following muscles gives rise to the Cunean tendon and on which aspect of the crus does the tendon insert?

A. Cranial tibial m.; medial
B. Cranial tibial m.; lateral
C. Peroneus tertius m; medial
D. Peroneus tertius m; lateral

A. Cranial tibial m.; medial

38

Which part of the equine pelvis is referred to as the "Hunter's bump"?

Tuber sacrale

39

Which of the following ligaments DOES NOT stabilize the atlanto-axial joint?

A. Transverse ligament of the atlas
B. Alar ligaments
C. Nuchal ligament
D. Apical ligament of the dens

C. Nuchal ligament

40

Which muscles make up the common calcanean tendon?

-Biceps Femoris m.
-Semitendinosus m.
-Gracilis m.
-Gastrocnemius m.
-SDF

41

An elderly pitbull enters your office displaying some severe spinal malformations. Upon x-ray you find bony proliferation of the articular processes and contiguous bridging between the vertebrae. What is your DDx?

A. Spondylosis
B. Bone spavin
C. Chondrodystrophy
D. Spinal fractures

A. Spondylosis

42

Which joint is considered the "yes" joint? The "no" joint?

Atlanto - occipital joint is the "yes" joint
Atlanto - axial joint is the "no" joint

43

What are the boundaries of the pelvic inlet?

Lateral: arcuate line of the ilium
Ventral: pectin of the pubis
Dorsal: promontary of the sacrum

44

What makes up the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?

Lateral: sacrotuberous ligament
Ventral: ischiatic arch
Dorsal: first caudal vertebrae

45

What muscles make up the small pelvic association?

-Internal obturator
-External obturator
-Gemelli
-Quadratus Femoris

46

What muscle extends from the muscular lacuna of the external abdominal oblique and is a flexor of the hip?

A. Rectus Femoris
B. Iliopsoas
C. Gubernaculum
D. Transversus Abdominis

B. Iliopsoas

47

What holds down the cranial tibial muscle and long digital extensor muscle?

Crural extensor retinaculum

48

True/False. The most cranial muscle of the crus in the horse is the lateral digital extensor.

False. The most cranial muscle of the crus is the long digital extensor.

49

In layman’s terms, “hooks” and “pins” are used to describe the _____ and _____ in large animals

A. Tuber sacrale; tuber ischii
B. Tuber ischii; tuber sacrale
C. Tuber sacrale; sacrum
D. Tuber ischii; ischiatic spine

A. Tuber sacrale; tuber ischii

50

The greater trochanter of the femur of the horse has an associated trochanteric bursa and it is positioned between:

A. The tendon of the deep gluteal and caudal part of the greater trochanter
B. The tendon of the middle gluteal and caudal part of the greater trochanter
C. The tendon of the deep gluteal and cranial part of the greater trochanter
D. The tendon of the middle gluteal and cranial part of the greater trochanter

D. The tendon of the middle gluteal and cranial part of the greater trochanter

51

What ligament is strained and appears convex in shape in the condition known as "curb"

Long plantar ligament

52

Which two joints of the tarsus almost NEVER communicate with each other?

Proximal and Distal Intertarsal Joints

53

Deformities of the vertebrae usually resulting from blood borne infections are called?

A. Spondylosis
B. Discospondylitis
C. Discosponylosis
D. Osteochondrosis

B. Discospondylitis

54

About 75% of these joint luxations are craniodorsal and are characterized by the ventral dislocation of the head of the femur out of the acetabulum.

Hip Luxations

55

Which of the small plevic association muscles extends the hip and inserts inserts at the intertrochanteric crest of the femur?

A. Quadratus Femoris
B. Internal Obturator
C. External Obturator
D. Gemelli

A. Quadratus Femoris

56

True/False. The Quadriceps Femoris muscles are powerful extensors of the stifle and flex the hip.

False. The Quadriceps Femoris muscles all extend the stifle but only the Rectus femoris muscle flexes the hip.

57

True/False: The Hamstring Muscles are extensors of the hip and hock and flex/extend the stifle.

False. Only the Semitendinosus and the Biceps Femoris are extensors of the hock

58

What muscles are located on the medial aspect of the thigh and what are their functions?

-Sartorius: flexes the hip, extend/flex the stifle (weight bearing/non-weight bearing)
-Adductor: adducts the limb and extends the hip
-Gracilis: adducts the limb, extends the hip and hock, and flexes the stifle
-Pectineus: adducts the limb

59

True/False: The gluteal muscles extend the hip, abduct the limb, and rotate the pelvic limb medially.

False. They all extend the hip
-Middle and Deep Gluteal: medially rotate the pelvic limb and abduct the hip
-Superficial Gluteal: abducts the limb

60

What action do all the muscles that make up the Common Calcanean Tendon perform?

A. flex the stifle
B. extend the stifle
C. flex the hip and hock
D. extend the hip and hock

A. flex the stifle

61

What are the five inspiratory muscles?

-Diaphragm
-Scalenus
-External Intercostals
-Serratus Dorsalis Cranialis
-Rectus thoracis

62

What are the expiratory muscles?

-Serratus Dorsalis Caudalis
-Internal Intercostals
-Abdominal muscles
-Transversus thoracis

63

What ligaments hold the head of the femur within the acetabulum?

-Ligament of the femoral head
-Transverse acetabular ligament

64

What is the most common orthopedic disease in large breed dogs and is characterized by the poor formation of the hip joint?

Hip Dysplasia

65

This disease causes pain upon forced abduction and extension of the limb and is common in small breed dogs.

Femoral Head Necrosis

66

What ligament attaches the caudal part of the lateral meniscus to the intercondylar fossa of the femur?

Meniscofemoral Ligament

67

Which side of the meniscus could easily tear due to limited movement, if there is a rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament?

Medial meniscus

68

Which of the following is false about a luxating patella?

A. usually medial luxation of small/toy breed dogs
B. may be congenital or acquired
C. the rotation of the femur pulls the patella medially
D. caused by an underdeveloped medial trochlea
E. all the above are correct

E. all the above are correct

69

True/False: The greatest movement in the tarsal joint is between the cochlea of the tibia and the trochlea.

True

70

Which of the following can cause the hock to drop and the toe to curl if its torn?

A. Gastrocnemius m.
B. SDF
C. Biceps Femoris m.
D. All the above

A. Gastrocnemius m.

71

True/False: Hip luxation is relatively common in horses and rare in ruminants.

False. It is rare in horses because they have the accessory ligament preventing abduction of the hip.

72

What is the palpable reference point of the Distal Intertarsal Joint and can be surgically cut to reduce pressure on arthritis of the distal hock joints?

Cunean Tendon

73

What is the name of the ligament that anchors the distal sesamoid bone (navicular) to the distal phalanx (coffin bone)?

Impar Ligament / Navicular Ligament

74

What are the main components of the Patellar Locking Mechanism?

1. Medial Ridge of the Femoral Trochlea
2. Patella
3. Quadriceps Femoris muscles
4. Medial Patellar Ligament
5. Lateral Patellar Ligament
6. Intermediate Patellar Ligament
7. Patellar Fibrocartilage
8. Biceps Femoris muscle

75

Which two joint capsules communicate directly 65% of the time?

Femoropatellar joint capsule and the Medial Femorotibial joint capsule

76

True/False: The proximal intertarsal joint and the distal intertarsal joint "always" communicate.

False. The Tibiotarsal (Tarsocrural) joint and the Proximal Intertarsal Joint "always" communicate

Remember:
"Always" - Tibiotarsal joint (Tarsocrural) & Proximal Intertarsal joint
"Never" - Proximal Intertarsal joint & Distal Intertarsal joint
"Sometimes" - Distal Intertarsal joint & Tarsometatarsal joint

77

What is considered the "Pin Bone" of bovine?

Tuber Ischii

78

What is known as the "Hooks" in bovine?

Tuber coxae

79

Name the three main systems of the expaxial muscles and what they are divided into.

Iliocostalis System (lumborum, thoracis)

Longissiumus System (lumborum, cervicis, capitis)

Transversospinalis System
-Splenius
-Semispinalis Capitis (Complexus, and Biventer cervicis)

80

What are the hypaxial muscles?

Longus capitis
Longus Coli
Scalenus
Serratus ventralis- cervicis and thoracis
Serratus dorsalis - cranialis and caudalis
External intercostal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles

81

True/False: The cranial tibial muscle rotates the paw medially so the plantar surface faces laterally.

False: the cranial tibial muscle rotates the paw laterally so the plantar surface faces medially

82

Which of the following muscles adducts the limb, flexes the stifle, and extends the hip?

A. Adductor
B. Gracilis
C. Sartorius
D. Pectineus

B. Gracilis

83

Which ribs are considered the "true ribs" and where do they connect to?

1-9 and they connect to the sternum (vertebrosternal)

84

What do ribs 10-12 articulate with?

Cartilage of cranial rib (vertebrocartilaginous)

85

True/False. The heads of ribs 11-13 articulate with the caudal costal fovea of proceeding vertebrae.

False. They articulate with the same vertebrae - the cranial costal fovea

86

What are the three ligaments of the dens and what do they do?

Alar ligament - attaches the dens to the occipital bone
Apical ligament - attaches the dens to the skull
Transverse atlantal ligament - holds dense against ventral arch

87

What would be the cranial costal fovea of rib 1? What would be the caudal costal fovea of rib 1?

Cranial costal fovea: T1
Caudal costal fovea: C7

88

Which muscle of the equine pelvic limb has an accessory gluteal muscle and has a tendon affiliated with the trochanteric bursa?

A. Superficial Gluteal
B. Middle Gluteal
C. Deep Gluteal
D. Large Gluteal

B. Middle Gluteal

89

What are the components of the suspensory apparatus?

-Interosseus (suspensory ligament)
-Medial and lateral extensor branches of the interosseus
-Proximal sesamoid bones
-Sesamoidean ligaments (straight, oblique, cruciate)
-Superficial digital flexor (with flexor manica)
-Deep digital flexor

90

List the joints of the equine pelvic limb starting from the hip joint to the coffin joint.

-Coxofemoral Joint (hip)
-Stifle Joint (femoropatellar, medial femorotibial and lateral femorotibial joint capsules)
-Tibiotarsal Joint
-Proximal Intertarsal Joint
-Distal Intertarsal Joint
-Tarsometatarsal Joint
-Metatarsophalangeal Joint (Fetlock)
-Proximal Interphalangeal Joint (Pastern)
-Distal Interphalangeal Joint (Coffin)

91

What are the muscular boundaries of the cervical visceral space?

Dorsal: Longus colli, longus capitis
Ventral: Sternothyrohyoideus (sternothyroideus, sternohyoideus)

92

What passes through the inguinal canal?

-Vaginal process (female)
-Vaginal tunic (male)
-External pudendal arteries and veins
-Genitofemoral nerve

93

What muscle is affiliated with the external vaginal tunic and is responsible for retracting the testicles toward the body wall?

Cremaster muscle

94

What therapy is used for intermittent signs of mild pathology for upward fixation of the patella?

Strength training of the Quadriceps Femoris muscles and Biceps Femoris muscle

95

What is a more aggressive approach to upward fixation of the patella that will result in fibrosis of the medial patellar ligament?

Medial Patellar Ligament Splitting

96

What is the cause of a flexed stifle and extended hock and a "wrinkle" in the calcaneal tendon?

Ruptured Peroneus Tertius

97

Which bone of the os coxae is present only in early development of the newborn?

A. Acetabular bone
B. Ischium
C. Ilium
D. Pubis

A. Acetabular bone

98

The tendon of the internal obturator crosses ventrally over this structure, in which a subtendinous bursa is associated

A. Greater ischiatic notch
B. Greater sciatic notch
C. Lesser ischiatic notch
D. Ischiatic spine

C. Lesser ischiatic notch

99

Which of the following originates from the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle joint?

A. Fibularis longus
B. Lateral digital extensor
C. Long digital extensor
D. Cranial tibial

A. Fibularis longus

100

Which muscle(s) originate from the ventral pelvic symphysis?

A. Adductor
B. Gracilis
C. Internal Obturator
D. A & B
E. All the above

D. A & B

101

What binds the tendons of the long and lateral digital extensors, fibularis tertius, and cranial tibial in place on the distal aspect of the crus?

A. Proximal extensor retinaculum
B. Middle extensor retinaculum
C. Tarsal extensor retinaculum
D. Distal extensor retinaculum

A. Proximal extensor retinaculum

102

You have been working with a famous racehorse for years who has recently been showing some lameness in the left hock joint. Upon radiographic imaging you determine the horse has osteoarthritis in the distal intertarsal joint. What is the common name for this overgrowth of bony material?

A. Osteodystrophy
B. Bone Spavin
C. Osteoporosis
D. Cartilage disease

B. Bone Spavin

103

You are called to a farm where the owner is complaining that his horse is “walkin’ funny”. You arrive to find a horse who is unable to flex the stifle. You explain to the owner that he has a Stifled horse which requires you to go in surgically and cut which of the following?

A. Intermediate patellar ligament
B. Medial Femoropatellar Ligament
C. Medial patellar ligament
D. Meniscofemoral ligament

C. Medial patellar ligament

104

What two spaces can be used for epidurals?

Lumbosacral Space
Sacrococcygeal Space

105

Which muscles form a sheath around the rectus abdominis muscle?

Internal and external abdominal oblique muscles and the transverse adbominal muscle

106

Where can you find the Navicular Bursa?

In between the DDF and the navicular bone (distal sesamoid)

107

Ostochondrosis Desicans (OCD) of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia is known as what?

"DIRT lesions" (Distal Intermediate Ridge of the Tibia)

108

Which ligament extends between vertebral arches to cover the epidural interarcuate space between the articular process?

A. Interspinous Ligament
B. Suraspinous Ligament
C. Yellow Ligament
D. Nuchal Ligament

C. Yellow Ligament

109

Why is T11 considered the anticlinical vertebra?

Caudally to T11 the spines incline cranially
Cranially to T11 the spines become progressively shorter and incline caudally

110

True/False: The piriformis muscle is considered part of the middle gluteal muscle.

True.

111

What is found within the cervical visceral space?

-Trachea
-Esophagus
-Carotid sheath
-Thyroid and Parathyroid glands

112

Which disease is associated with heave lines that are prominent in horses due to sustained involvement of the abdominal muscles during forced expiration?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

113

What can you find within the Carotid Sheath?

-Vagosympathetic trunks
-Common Carotid artery
-Internal Jugular Vein

114

Which joint would you aspirate CSF of the cerebellomedullary cistern?

Atlanto-occipital joint

115

What is the midventral raphe that consists of the fused throacolumbar fascia and the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles?

Linea alba

116

What muscles are located on the lateral aspect of the pelvis and what is their action?

-Superficial Gluteal: extends the hip and abducts the limb
-Middle Gluteal: extends and abducts the hip, and rotates the pelvic limb medially at the hip
-Deep Gluteal: extends and abducts the hip, and rotates the pelvic limb medially at the hip
-Tensor faciae latae: tenses the facia lata, flexes the hip, and extends the stifle

117

If you were to palpate a dog with a cranial dorsal hip luxation the ____ would be on or dorsal to the line drawn between the cranial dorsal iliac spine and the ____.

Greater trochanter; Ischiatic tuberosity

118

Where does the external abdominal oblique originate and where does the aponeuroses insert?

Origin: ribs and thoracolumbar fascia
Inserts: on the linea alba and prepubic tendon

119

What is the origin of the transversus abdominis and where does the aponeuroses attach?

Origin: transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia
Aponeuroses attaches to the linea alba

120

Which of the following is false regarding the Rectus Sheath?

A. Cranial to the umbilicus the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique splits to form a sleeve around the rectus abdominis m.
B. Caudal to the umbilicus the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis is deep to the rectus abdominis m.
C. Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie deep to the rectus abdominis m.
D. All of the above are true

C. Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie deep to the rectus abdominis m.

-Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie superficial to the rectus abdominis m.

121

True/False: The fibers of the fascia of the tunica flava abdominis exchange fibers with the aponeuroses of the internal abdominal oblique.

False. They exchange fibers with the aponeuroses of the external abdominal oblique

122

The prepubic tendon is strengthened by longitudinal fibers of the ____ muscles aponeuroses at the linea alba and the _____.

abdominal muscle aponeuroses & tunica flava abdominis

123

Where do the fibers of the EQUINE internal abdominal oblique originate form and what is the direction of the fibers?

Tuber coxae; ventrocranially --> ventrocaudally

124

Where do the fibers of the BOVINE abdominal wall originate from?

The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and throacolumbar fascia

125

What is equivalent to the sacrotuberous ligament in large animals?

Broad sacrotuberous ligament or the sacrosciatic ligament