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Flashcards in Lab Practical Exam 2 Deck (213)
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True/False. During inhalation volume increases and pressure decreases.



What are the four openings of the diaphragm?

1. Lumbocostal arches
2. Aortic hiatus
3. Esophageal hiatus
4. Caval foramen


What is the name of the cavity that is found within the thorax?



Which cavity is found within the abdomen?



Which of the following recess can you find the acessory lobe of the right lung?
a. Pleural cupula
b. Costomediastinal
c. Mediastinal recess
d. Costodiaphragmatic

c. Mediastinal recess


What are the dorsal and ventral boundaries of the cervical visceral space?

Dorsal: Longus capitis, and Longus Coli
Ventral: Sternocephalicus and Sternothyrohyoideus


What is found within the cervical visceral space?

-Thyroid and parathyroid gland
-Recurrent laryngeal nerves
-Tracheal lymph nodes
- Carotid Sheath (common carotid arteries, vagosympathetic trunk, and internal jugular veins)


What are the contents within the mediastinum?

-Phrenic nerves (R and L)
-Vagus nerves (R and L)
-Vagal trunks (D and V)
-Paravertebral (sympathetic) chain of ganglia (R & L)
-Heart within pericardium
-Pulmonary trunk
-Right azygos vein (R and L in ox)
-Thoracic duct
-Tracheobronchial lymph node
-Recrurrent Laryngeal nerves (R and L)


What are the branches of the Subclavian Artery?

-Costocervical trunk
-Vertebral artery
-Superficial cervical artery
-Internal Thoracic artery


What is the name for the fold of serous membrane that envelops the caudal vena cava and right phrenic nerve?

Plica venae cavae


What are the two branches that come off the ventral branch of cervical spinal nerve 2?

Great auricular nerves
Transverse cervical nerve


True/False. Epaxial muscles are mainly respiratory muscles that have an attachment to the ribs and/or sternum.

False. Hypaxial muscles


What is the name of the junction between the costal pleura and the diaphragmatic pleura?

Diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection


Which of the following is located between the crura and the vertebrae and serves as a passage of the major splanchnic nerve?

a. Lumbocostal arch
b. Aortic hiatus
c. Esophageal hiatus
d. Caval foramen

a. Lumbocostal arch


True/False. The aortic hiatus is between the two crura and the lumbar vertebrae and allows passage of the aorta, azygos vein, and thoracic duct.



What opens in the right muscular crus and transmits the esophagus and the dorsal and ventral vagal trunks?

Esophageal hiatus


Which somatic nerves originate from the ventral branches of spinal nerves C5-C7 with a minor contribution from C4?

Right and Left phrenic nerves


What is found at the junction where the costal pleura reflects onto the surface of the diaphragm and forms a "pocket" or a fold?

Costodiaphragmatic recess


Which of the following is the terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery?

a. Cranial epigastric a.
b. Superficial cranial epigastric a.
c. Caudal epigastric a.
d. Musculophrenic a.

d. Musculophrenic a.


What allows passage of the caudal vena cava and is unique because the adventitia of the vessel fuses with tendon?

Caval foramen


Which pleura is located where the left and right pleura sacs meet cranially within the thorax?

a. Costal pleura
b. Mediastinal pleura
c. Sternal pleura
d. Diaphragmatic pleura

b. Mediastinal pleura


Ture/ False. Thoracocentesis is the aspiration of peritoneal fluid from the abdomen.

False. Thoracocentesis is the aspiration of pleural fluid and abdominocentesis is the aspiration of peritoneal fluid from the abdomen.


What are the three layers of the pericardium?

-Outer: pericardial mediastinal pleura
-Middle: fibrous pericardium
-Inner: serous pericardium


What is the continuation of the fibrous pericardium to the diaphragm called in both small and large animal?

phrenicopericardial ligament
sternopericarium ligament (large animal)


What are the four junctions where the pleural linings reflect from one wall region/surface to another and generates recesses or "pockets"?

-Pleural cupula
-Costomediastinal recess
-Costodiaphragmatic recess
-Mediastinal recess


Which species has/have divided cranial lobes of the left lung?

Carnivores, Ruminants, and pigs


True/False. The cardiac notch is located between the 3rd and 4th intercostal spaces in equine and dog and 3rd to 6th intercostal spaces in ruminant.

3rd-4th: ruminant and dog
3rd-6th: equine


True/False. All animals have a cranial lobe, middle lobe, caudal lobe, and accessory lobe in their right lung.

False. All species except equine have a middle lobe of the right lung


Which animal has a divided cranial lobe of the right lung?

Ruminants and sometimes pigs


Which animal does NOT have a divided cranial lobe of the left lung?