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Flashcards in Lab Practical Exam 2 Deck (213)
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1

True/False. During inhalation volume increases and pressure decreases.

True.

2

What are the four openings of the diaphragm?

1. Lumbocostal arches
2. Aortic hiatus
3. Esophageal hiatus
4. Caval foramen

3

What is the name of the cavity that is found within the thorax?

Pleural

4

Which cavity is found within the abdomen?

Peritoneal

5

Which of the following recess can you find the acessory lobe of the right lung?
a. Pleural cupula
b. Costomediastinal
c. Mediastinal recess
d. Costodiaphragmatic

c. Mediastinal recess

6

What are the dorsal and ventral boundaries of the cervical visceral space?

Dorsal: Longus capitis, and Longus Coli
Ventral: Sternocephalicus and Sternothyrohyoideus

7

What is found within the cervical visceral space?

-Trachea
-Esophagus
-Thyroid and parathyroid gland
-Recurrent laryngeal nerves
-Tracheal lymph nodes
- Carotid Sheath (common carotid arteries, vagosympathetic trunk, and internal jugular veins)

8

What are the contents within the mediastinum?

-Thymus
-Trachea
-Esophagus
-Phrenic nerves (R and L)
-Vagus nerves (R and L)
-Vagal trunks (D and V)
-Paravertebral (sympathetic) chain of ganglia (R & L)
-Heart within pericardium
-Aorta
-Pulmonary trunk
-Right azygos vein (R and L in ox)
-Thoracic duct
-Tracheobronchial lymph node
-Recrurrent Laryngeal nerves (R and L)

9

What are the branches of the Subclavian Artery?

-Costocervical trunk
-Vertebral artery
-Superficial cervical artery
-Internal Thoracic artery

10

What is the name for the fold of serous membrane that envelops the caudal vena cava and right phrenic nerve?

Plica venae cavae

11

What are the two branches that come off the ventral branch of cervical spinal nerve 2?

Great auricular nerves
Transverse cervical nerve

12

True/False. Epaxial muscles are mainly respiratory muscles that have an attachment to the ribs and/or sternum.

False. Hypaxial muscles

13

What is the name of the junction between the costal pleura and the diaphragmatic pleura?

Diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection

14

Which of the following is located between the crura and the vertebrae and serves as a passage of the major splanchnic nerve?

a. Lumbocostal arch
b. Aortic hiatus
c. Esophageal hiatus
d. Caval foramen

a. Lumbocostal arch

15

True/False. The aortic hiatus is between the two crura and the lumbar vertebrae and allows passage of the aorta, azygos vein, and thoracic duct.

True.

16

What opens in the right muscular crus and transmits the esophagus and the dorsal and ventral vagal trunks?

Esophageal hiatus

17

Which somatic nerves originate from the ventral branches of spinal nerves C5-C7 with a minor contribution from C4?

Right and Left phrenic nerves

18

What is found at the junction where the costal pleura reflects onto the surface of the diaphragm and forms a "pocket" or a fold?

Costodiaphragmatic recess

19

Which of the following is the terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery?

a. Cranial epigastric a.
b. Superficial cranial epigastric a.
c. Caudal epigastric a.
d. Musculophrenic a.

d. Musculophrenic a.

20

What allows passage of the caudal vena cava and is unique because the adventitia of the vessel fuses with tendon?

Caval foramen

21

Which pleura is located where the left and right pleura sacs meet cranially within the thorax?

a. Costal pleura
b. Mediastinal pleura
c. Sternal pleura
d. Diaphragmatic pleura

b. Mediastinal pleura

22

Ture/ False. Thoracocentesis is the aspiration of peritoneal fluid from the abdomen.

False. Thoracocentesis is the aspiration of pleural fluid and abdominocentesis is the aspiration of peritoneal fluid from the abdomen.

23

What are the three layers of the pericardium?

-Outer: pericardial mediastinal pleura
-Middle: fibrous pericardium
-Inner: serous pericardium

24

What is the continuation of the fibrous pericardium to the diaphragm called in both small and large animal?

phrenicopericardial ligament
sternopericarium ligament (large animal)

25

What are the four junctions where the pleural linings reflect from one wall region/surface to another and generates recesses or "pockets"?

-Pleural cupula
-Costomediastinal recess
-Costodiaphragmatic recess
-Mediastinal recess

26

Which species has/have divided cranial lobes of the left lung?

Carnivores, Ruminants, and pigs

27

True/False. The cardiac notch is located between the 3rd and 4th intercostal spaces in equine and dog and 3rd to 6th intercostal spaces in ruminant.

False:
3rd-4th: ruminant and dog
3rd-6th: equine

28

True/False. All animals have a cranial lobe, middle lobe, caudal lobe, and accessory lobe in their right lung.

False. All species except equine have a middle lobe of the right lung

29

Which animal has a divided cranial lobe of the right lung?

Ruminants and sometimes pigs

30

Which animal does NOT have a divided cranial lobe of the left lung?

Equine

31

What are the functional and nutritional blood supplies of the lungs?

Functional: pulmonary arteries and veins
Nutritional: bronchoesophageal artery and azygous vein

32

What supplies the cranial lobe of the right lung of the ruminant and pig that branches directly from the trachea?

tracheal bronchus

33

Which of the following supplies the muscles of ventral neck and cranial shoulder?

a. Superficial cervical artery
b. Vertebral artery
c. Costacervical trunk
d. Internal thoracic artery

a. Superficial cervical artery

34

Which species only has a left azygos vein? Which species has both a left and a right azygos vein?

Pigs only have a left
Ruminants have both left and right

35

Where are afferent neuron cell bodies located?

Within the dorsal root ganglia

36

True/False. PSNS is thoracolumbar and SNS is craniosacral.

False. PSNS is craniosacral and SNS is thoracolumbar

37

True/False. Rami communicantes are pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibers that enter the paravertebral chain.

True

38

What nerve leaves the left vagus nerve at the level of the middle cervical ganglion and wraps around the ligamentum arteriosum and aortic arch?

Left Recurrent Laryngeal nerve

39

True/False. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve leaves the right vagus nerve at the level of the middle cervical ganglion and wraps around the right subclavian artery?

True

40

What branch does the dorsal vagal trunk give off to the celiacomesenteric plexus? Would it be considered pre-synaptic parasympathetic fibers or post-sympatetic parasympathetic fibers?

Celiac branch, pre-synaptic parasympathetic fibers

41

True/False. We will never see post-synaptic parasympathetic fibers.

True. We never see them because they will either synapse on the organ or inside the organ.

42

Which of the following is considered to be a post-synaptic sympathetic fiber?

a. Splanchnic nerves
b. Vagus nerve
c. Hypogastric nerve
d. Recurrent laryngeal nerve

c. Hypogastric nerve

Splanchnic = pre-synaptic sympathetic
Vagus = pre-synaptic parasympathetic

43

What extends from the interventricular septal wall to the parietal wall of the ventricle and is a component of the conduction system of the heart?

Trabeculae Septomarginalis

44

What is the name of the opening between the right and left atria in the fetus? What is it called after birth?

Foramen ovale in the fetus
Fossa ovalis in adults

45

The ___ provides an opening for the accessory pancreatic duct.

Minor duodenal papilla

46

What is the name for the fetal structure that serves to shunt the blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta, bypassing the pulmonary circulation?

Ductus arteriosus

47

The ____ may constrict the esophagus if there is a vascular ring anomaly and can cause megaesophagus.

Ligamentum arteriosum

48

Which artery is the continuation of the internal thoracic artery and gives rise to the superficial cranial epigastric artery?

Cranial epigastric artery

49

Which artery is known as the common trunk for caudal phrenic and cranial abdominal arteries and is a branch of the abdominal aorta?

Phrenicoabdominal artery

50

Which of the following is the ventral branch of L2?

a. Ilioinguinal nerve
b. Cranial iliohypogastric nerve
c. Caudal Iliohypogastic nerve
d. Lateral cutaneous femoral nerve

c. Caudal Iliohypogastic nerve

51

Name the nerves (L1 - L4) that innervate the abdominal wall in carinvores.

L1: cranial iliohypogastric nerve
L2: caudal iliohypogastric nerve
L3: ilioinguinal nerve
L4: lateral cutaneous femoral nerve
formed by L3 and L4: genitofemoral nerve

52

Which of the following ligaments is the remnant of the fetal umbilical vein?

a. Vaginal ligament
b. Median ligament of the bladder
c. Transverse ligament
d. Round ligament of the liver

d. Round ligament of the liver

53

What is the name of the enclosed place between the superficial and deep leaves of the greater omentum and is accessed through the epiploic foramen?

Omental bursa

54

Which duodenal papilla provides openings for the bile duct and the pancreatic duct?

Major duodenal papilla

55

Which groove is adjacent to the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle?

a. Coronary Groove
b. Interventricular groove
c. Paraconal interventricular groove
d. Subsinuosal interventricular groove

c. Paraconal interventricular groove

56

What is the name of the artery present to approximate the length of the ileum in the dog, but is absent in equine?

Antimesenteric ileal artery

57

What are the names of the 6 lobes in the liver?

-Right lateral lobe
-Right medial lobe
-Quadrate lobe
-Left medial lobe
-Left lateral lobe
-Caudate lobe (papillary process, and caudate process)

58

Which process of the caudate lobe is enveloped by the lesser omentum?

papillary process of the caudate lobe

59

What is the specific portion of the greater omentum that extends between the stomach and the spleen?

Gastrosplenic ligament

60

Which of the following is not present in equine to carry bile to the duodenum?

a. Bile duct
b. Hepatic ducts
c. Cystic duct
d. Common bile duct

c. Cystic duct

61

What are the three components of the broad ligaments of the uterus?

Mesometrium
Mesovarium
Mesosalpinx

62

What are the three unpaired branches of the aorta?

-Celiac artery
-Cranial mesenteric artery
-Cudal mesenteric artery

63

What are the three branches off the celiac artery?

-Left gastric artery
-Splenic artery
-Hepatic artery

64

Which artery is the parent branch of the right gastroepiploic artery?

Gastroduodenal artery from the Hepatic artery

65

What are the 7 paired vessels of the abdomen?

-Lumbar arteries
-Phrenicoabdominal artery
-Renal artery
-Testicular/ Ovarian artery
-Deep circumflex iliac artery
-External Iliac artery
-Internal iliac artery

66

_____ supplies musculature and skin of the caudodorsal abdominal region as well as the skin of the flank and cranial thigh.

Deep circumflex iliac artery and vein

67

True/False. Pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the caudal mesenteric ganglion and travel within the hypogastric nerves.

False. Post- ganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the caudal mesenteric ganglion and travel with the hypogastric nerves

68

What are the nerves of the large animal abdominal wall?

T13 (T18 in equine): Costoabdominal
L1: Iliohypogastric nerve
L2/L3: Ilioinguinal nerve
L3/L4: lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

69

What are the four quadrants of the abdominal wall and what are the major arteries in each that supply them?

-Caudodorsal: Deep circumflex iliac artery
-Craniodorsal: Phrenicoabdominal artery
-Caudoventral: caudal epigastric a., and caudal superficial epigastric a.
Cranioventral: cranial epigastric a., and cranial superficial epigastric a.

70

In the unweaned animal, which grooves must close in order to form the gastric groove to convey milk directly from the esophagus into the abomasum?

-Reticular groove
-Omasal groove
-Abomasal groove

71

What is the name of the space or "island" located between the right longitudinal pillar and right accessory pillar?

insula ruminis

72

What is the major and minor blood supply of the rumen?

Major: right ruminal artery
Minor: left ruminal artery

73

Which of the four compartments of the ruminant have honeycomb like cells?

a. Reticulum
b. Rumen
c. Omasum
d. Abomasum

a. Reticulum

74

Which stomach is responsible for biphasic contractions as well as mechanical digestion and absorption?

Omasum

75

What supplies the lesser and greater curvature of the abomasum?

Greater: Gastroepiploic arteries
Lesser: Gastric arteries

76

The sling containing the bulk of the intestines made by the superficial and deep leaves of the greater omentum is known as ____.

supraomental recess

77

True/Flase. The deep leaf of the greater omentum comes off the left longitudinal groove and the superficial leaf of the greater omentum comes off the right longitudinal groove.

Flase. Deep leaf comes off the right longitudinal groove and superficial leaf comes off the left longitudinal groove

78

In the spiral loop the _____ is when the ingesta goes in and the ____ is when the ingesta goes out.

Centripetal gyri ; Centrifugal gyri

79

True/False. In small ruminant the jejunal lymph nodes are adjacent with the last centrifugal gyrus, which lies adjacent to the jejunum, and in the large ruminant the jejunal lymph nodes are adjacent to the jejunum.

True.

80

What is the name for the prominent line at the junction of the glandular and non glandular regions in the equine stomach?

Margo Plicatus

81

Which species has no gallbladder but has a common bile duct to deliver bile to the duodenum from the liver?

Equine

82

What is used to determine the length of the ileum in equine?

Ileocecal fold

83

What does the large intestine of the equine consist of?

-Cecum
-Large colon (ascending colon)
-Transverse colon
-Small colon (descending colon)

84

What can be felt during rectal palpation in equine that are significant with the large intestine?

Taeniae coli or external intestinal bands

85

How many bands does the Cecum contain?

4 bands

86

What is the name of the orifice that allows the cecum and the ascending colon to communicate?

Cecocolic orifice

87

What fold extends from the cecum to the ileum in equine? Which extends from the cecum to the right ventral colon in equine?

Ileocecal fold; Cecocolic fold

88

What is the directional path through the ascending colon from oral to aboral of the equine and how many bands does each have?

Right ventral colon (4) --> ventral diaphragmatic flexure (4) --> left ventral colon (4) --> pelvic flexure (1) --> left dorsal colon (1) --> dorsal diaphragmatic flexure (1-3) --> right dorsal colon (3)

89

What is the major blood supply for the dorsal colon? What is the major blood supply of the ventral colon?

Dorsal Colon: right colic artery
Ventral Colon: colic branch of the ileocolic artery

90

What extends between the left kidney and spleen and is a common site of entrapment of the left large colon in equine?

Nephrosplenic ligament

91

What is commonly displaced within the left pelvic region and can lead to tosion/ strangulations in equine?

Pelvic Flexure

92

How many bands does the descending colon/ small colon have and what is its blood supply?

2 bands ; left colic artery

93

True/False. The ventral colon is significantly smaller than the dorsal colon creating a natural bottleneck effect at the pelvic flexure, resulting in impaction.

False. The dorsal colon is significantly smaller than the ventral colon

94

What does the cranial mesenteric artery give rise to?

-caudal pancreaticoduodenal artery
-jejunal artery/ Ileal artery
-Ileocolic artery/ common trunk

95

What does the caudal mesenteric artery branch into and what organs do those arteries supply?

Left colic artery = descending colon
cranial rectal artery = rectum

96

What are the branches of the common trunk/ ileocolic artery?

-Middle colic artery
-Right colic artery
-Colic branch of the ileocolic artery
-Cecal artery

97

What organ(s) does the right colic artery supply?

-Transverse colon
-Ascending colon

98

What does the middle colic artery supply?

-Descending colon
-Transverse colon

99

What does the gastroduodenal artery branch into and what organs do they supply?

-Right Gastroepiploic artery: greater curvature of the stomach
-Cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery: right lobe of the pancreas, and descending duodenum

100

What are the borders of the paralumbar fossa in cattle?

Base: tips of the lumbar transverse process
Cranioventral border: last rib
Caudoventral border: ridge formed by part of the internal abdominal oblique muscle

101

True/False. Carnivores have an ileocolic fold.

False. They have an ileocecal fold and ileocolic orifice

102

What can you access through the left paralumbar fossa of the ruminant?

Rumen and Reticulum

103

Which of the following are located on the right side of the ruminant?

a. Spleen
b. Rumen
c. Reticulum
d. Omasum

d. Omasum

*all the others are located on the left side*

104

True/False. There is more papillae on the dorsal surface of the rumen versus the ventral surface where there are none.

False. The dorsal surface has no papillae because gas rises and papillae is only useful for mechanical digestion.

105

What are the four main quadrants of the abdominal wall?

Craniodorsal
Caudodorsal
Cranioventral
Caudoventral

106

What are the specific regions of the cranial abdominal?

-Xiphoid region
-Hypochondriac regions (L and R)

107

What are the specific regions of the middle abdominal?

Umbilical region
Lateral abdominal region (L and R)

108

What are the specific regions of the caudal abdominal?

Pubic region
Inguinal regions (L and R)

109

What are the four muscles of the abdominal wall?

1. External Abdominal Oblique
2. Internal Abdominal Oblique
3. Transversus Abdominis
4. Rectus Abdominis

110

True/ False. The fibers of the external abdominal oblique run cranioventral.

False. The fibers run caudoventral

111

What are the two tendons that make up the caudal border of the external abdominal oblique?

-Pelvic tendon
-Abdominal tendon

112

What are the three major openings that you can find in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique?

-Muscular lacuna (iliopsoas m.)
-Vascular lacuna (femoral vv.)
-Superficial inguinal ring (vaginal process/ tunic)

113

Which of the following is the origin of the internal abdominal oblique?

A. tuber coxae + inguinal ligament + thoracolumbar fascia
B. ribs and thoracolumbar fascia
C. transverse process of lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia
D. sternum and rib cartilages

A. tuber coxae + inguinal ligament + thoracolumbar fascia

114

Which muscle is considered to be a flexor of the vertebral column?

Rectus Abdominis

115

In which orientation do the fibers of the internal abdominal oblique run?

Cranioventral

116

What are the boundaries of the deep inguinal ring?

Cranial: caudal border of the internal abdominal oblique muscle
Medial: lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
Lateral and Caudal: inguinal ligament

117

True/False. The left paralumbar fossa gives access to the cecum in a horse.

False. The right paralumbar fossa gives access to the cecum in a horse

118

True/ Flase. The left paralumbar fossa gives access to the rumen in catle.

True.

119

What is the cranioventral border of the paralumbar fossa in cattle?

A. tips of the lumbar transverse process
B. ridge of the internal abdominal oblique muscle
C. from the tuber coxae ventral end of the last rib
D. last rib

D. last rib

120

What are the borders of the paralumbar fossa in cattle?

-Base: tips of the lumbar transverse process
-Cranioventral: last rib
-Caudoventral: ridge of internal abdominal oblique muscle; from the tuber coxae to the ventral end of the last rib

121

What is the landmark for the paralumbar fossa in horses?

The tuber coxae

122

What is the caudal most edge of the pelvic tendon that attaches to the iliopubic eminence and prepubic tendon?

The inguinal ligament

123

What does the abdominal tendon of the external abdominal oblique contribute to that is most likely to rupture in a pregnant mare?

The prepubic tendon

124

Which muscle is most medially located (deepest) and has fibers that run transversely?

Transversus abdominis

125

Which muscle extends from the prepubic tendon to the sternum and is known as the "six pack" muscle due to its distinct transverse tendinous insertions?

Rectus Abdominis

126

The aponeurosis of which muscle(s) lie superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle near the pubis region?

A. Internal Abdominal Oblique
B. Transversus Abdominis
C. External Abdominal Oblique
D. All the above

D. All the above

127

True/False. The superficial inguinal ring is the opening in the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique muscle located between the pelvic and abdominal

False. It is the opening in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle.

128

What is the deep fascia of the trunk that supports the heavy weight of the abdominal viscera in both the horse and ox and consist largely of elastic tissue?

Tunica flava abdominis

129

What ligament extends laterally from the prepubic tendon in the horse?

The accessory ligament of the femoral head

130

What is done if there is a build up of gas in the rumen and/or cecum?

A trochar is used to puncture the dorsal aspect of the paralumbar fossa to relieve pain and bloating associated with gas build-up

131

What is the midventral raphe that consists of the fused throacolumbar fascia and the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles?

Linea alba

132

Where does the external abdominal oblique originate and where does the aponeuroses insert?

Origin: ribs and thoracolumbar fascia
Inserts: on the linea alba and prepubic tendon

133

What is the origin of the transversus abdominis and where does the aponeuroses attach?

Origin: transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia
Aponeuroses attaches to the linea alba

134

Which of the following is false regarding the Rectus Sheath?

A. Cranial to the umbilicus the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique splits to form a sleeve around the rectus abdominis m.
B. Caudal to the umbilicus the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis is deep to the rectus abdominis m.
C. Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie deep to the rectus abdominis m.

C. Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie deep to the rectus abdominis m.

-Near the pubis all three aponeuroses lie superficial to the rectus abdominis m.

135

True/False: The fibers of the fascia of the tunica flava abdominis exchange fibers with the aponeuroses of the internal abdominal oblique.

False. They exchange fibers with the aponeuroses of the external abdominal oblique

136

The prepubic tendon is strengthened by longitudinal fibers of the ____ muscles aponeuroses at the linea alba and the _____.

abdominal muscle aponeuroses and tunica flava abdominis

137

Where do the fibers of the EQUINE internal abdominal oblique originate form and what is the direction of the fibers?

Tuber coxae; ventrocranially --> ventrocaudally

138

Where do the fibers of the BOVINE abdominal wall originate from?

The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and throacolumbar fascia

139

What muscle is affiliated with the external vaginal tunic and is responsible for retracting the testicles toward the body wall?

Cremaster muscle

140

Which cranial nerve is the dorsal branch of the eleventh cranial nerve and crosses the first cervical spinal nerve in its caudal course to supply the trapezius muscle?

Cranial Nerve XI = Accessory Nerve

141

What are the two branches of the ventral branch of cervical spinal nerve 2 (C2)?

Great auricular nerve
Transverse cervical nerve

142

What is the name for CN X?

Vagus Nerve

143

What branches off the Aortic arch?

Brachiocephalic trunk and Left subclavian artery

144

What are the branches of the brachiocephaic trunk?

Common carotid artery (R and L)
Right Subclavian artery

145

True/False. The bronchoesophageal artery is the nutritional blood supply to the lungs and bronchi.

True.

146

Which arteries anastamose with the ventral intercostal arteries of the internal thoracic artery?

Dorsal intercostal arteries

147

Which ligament of the liver is a remnant of the ventral mesentery and extends between the liver and the umbilicus in the ventral body wall?

a. Triangular ligament
b. Coronary ligament of the liver
c. Hepatorenal ligament
d. Falciform ligament

d. Falciform ligament

148

What structures exit through the inguinal canal in males?

External pudendal artery and vein
Genitofemoral nerve
Cremaster muscle
Spermaticord
Vaginal tunic surrounding the testis

149

Which structures exit through the inguinal canal in females?

External pudendal artery and vein
Genitofemoral nerve
Vaginal process
Round ligament of the ovaries

150

What are the major and minor blood supplies of the rumen?

Major: right ruminal artery
Minor: left ruminal artery

151

What are the blood supplies to the mammae?

-Internal thoracic a. --> cr. epigastric a. --> cra. superficial epigastric a.

-external pudendal a. --> caudal superficial epigastric a.

152

True/False. The greater omentum attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach on the dorsal body wall.

True.

153

What lymph node is found at the base of the heart and the hilum of the lungs?

Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

154

Which artery connects the cervicothoracic ganglion and the middle cervical ganglion?

Ansa subclavia

155

Which nerves are made of pre- synaptic SNS axons that do not synapse within the paravertebral chain?

Splanchnic nerves

156

True/False. The azygous vein is bilateral in the fetus.

True.

157

Where is the great cardiac vein and the left coronary artery located in the heart?

Paraconal interventricular groove

158

What is found within the subsinuosal interventricular groove?

Circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, and the right coronary artery in equine and pig

159

What diverts the blood from the cranial and caudal vena cava into the right ventricle?

Intervenous tubercle

160

What is the dorsal separation of the main compartment and the auricle?

Crista terminalis

161

Which direction does the apex of the hear point?

a. Dorsocaudally
b. Dorsocranially
c. Caudoventrally
d. Caudodorsally

c. Caudoventrally and to the left

162

Which valves can you listen for points of maximum intensity (PMI) on the left side of the canine, and where are they located?

-Pulmonic valve: 3rd intercostal space
-Aortic valve: 4th intercostal space
-Micral/ Left AV valve: 5th intercostal space

163

Which valves can you listen for points of maximum intensity (PMI) on the right side of the canine, and where are they located?

Right AV valve: 4th intercostal space

164

What are the PMI for equine?

P: 3rd intercostal space
A: 4th intercostal space
M: 5th intercostal space
Right AV: 3/4th intercostal space

165

What are the PMI for bovine?

P: 3rd intercostal space
A: upper 4th intercostal space
M: lower 4th intercostal space
Right AV: 3/4th intercostal space

166

Which ligament contains the urachus and umbilical arteries in the fetus?

Median ligament of the bladder

167

The ____ is a ring-like internal region where the peritoneum extends into the inguinal canal.

Vaginal ring

168

True/False. The antimesenteric ileal artery is located within the ileocolic fold in the dog.

False. Its located within the ileocecal fold

169

____ is a blind ended pouch at the junction of the small and large intestines.

Cecum

170

Which lobe of the pancreas is located within the deep leaf of the greater omentum?

Left lobe

171

Which organ lies against the dorsal body wall of the upper lumbar region and is retroperitoneal, meaning they're only covered by peritoneum on one side?

Kidneys

172

What are the branches off the Hepatic artery?

Right Gastric artery
Gastroduodenal artery

173

What are the branches off the Splenic artery and what organs do they supply?

-Short gastric branches: greater curvature of stomach
-(L) Gastroepiploic a.: greater curvature of stomach

174

What are the branches off the common trunk/ileocolic artery?

-Colic branch of ileocolic a.
-Right colic a.
-Middle colic a.
-Cecal a.

175

What does the colic branch of the ileocolic artery supply?

Ascending colon

176

What organ does the cecal artery supply and what does this artery branch off into?

Supplies the colon
-Antimesenteric ileal branch artery: supplies the ileum

177

What organ does the caudal pancreaticoduodenal artery supply?

Right lobe of the pancreas and the duodenum

178

The caudal epigastric artery is a branch of the _____.

Pudendoepigastric trunk

179

The external pudendal artery branches into the _____ artery.

Caudal superficial epigastric artery

180

True/False. The dorsal vagal trunk will innervate everything except the abomasum.

True. The ventral vagal trunk innervates the abomasum

181

Which hormone in adults is responsible for the closure of the reticular lips to form the gastric groove?

ADH: antidiuretic hormone

182

Which drug can be used in adults to help create the formation of the gastric grooves that is very toxic to the small ruminant?

Copper sulfate

183

True/False. The spleen and rumen project mainly to the left side of the abdominal wall.

True.

184

What is the function of the rumen?

a. Digestion of complex carbohydrates
b. Mechanical digestion, absorption of VFA
c. Chemical digestion, absorption of VFA
d. All the above

a. Digestion of complex carbohydrates

185

What is the major innervation of the abomasum?

Ventral vagal trunk

186

Where is the epiploic foramen located in the dog?

Between the portal vein (ventral boundary) and the caudal vena cava (dorsal boundary)

187

True/False. The glandular region of the stomach is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and the non-glandular stomach is lined by simple columnar epithelium.

False.
-Glandular: simple columnar epithelium
-Non-glandular: stratified squamous epithelium

188

Which portion(s) of the small intestine most commonly exhibit epiploic foramen entrapment?

Jejunum and Ileum

189

Which species does not have the antimesenteric ileal branch artery?

Equine

190

How many bands are present in the transverse colon and descending colon in equine?

2 bands

191

The small transverse colon compared to the dorsal colon can lead to impaction, causing a natural bottleneck effect at ____.

Right Dorsal Colon

192

True/False. The dorsal colon has much more prominent haustra than the ventral colon.

False. The ventral colon has more prominent haustra

193

True/False. Both the cranial pancreaticoduodenal and the caudal pancreaticoduodenal supply the right lobe of the pancreas.

True.

194

Which ligaments extend from the left and right crura of the diaphragm to the left and right lateral lobes of the liver?

Triangular ligaments

195

The ___ is composed of the ductus deferens and the testicular artery and vein, which all pass through the inguinal canal.

Spermatic cord

196

What are the three loops of the ascending colon in the ruminant?

Proximal (sigmoid) loop
Spiral loop: Centripital gyri, central flexure, Centrifugal gyri
Distal (sigmoid) loop

197

What is the blood supply of the ascending colon in the ruminant?

-Colic branch of the ileocolic a.: proximal loop and centripetal gyri
-Right colic a.: distal loop and centrifugal gyri

198

What viscera is located between the left coastal arch and the tuber coxae of the equine?

Dorsal quadrant: Jejunum and descending (small) colon
Ventral quadrant: left ventral and left dorsal ascending (large) colon

199

What are the visceral projections of the equine on the right wall?

-Liver
-Right kidney
-Descending Duodenum
-Right dorsal colon
-Cecum

200

What can be heard if the left dorsal quadrant if we were to auscultate a horse?

Small intestine
Small colon

201

What can be heard if we were to auscultate the right dorsal quadrant of a horse?

Cecum

202

What can we hear in the ventral quadrants when we auscultate a horse?

The dorsal and ventral large colon

203

What helps to augment the function of the pyloric sphincter and regulate the flow of content from the abomasum into the small intestine?

Torus pyloricus

204

What courses in the right accessory groove and through the caudal groove to give off right and left dorsal and ventral coronary arteries within the correspondent coronary grooves?

Right ruminal artery

205

What is the main blood supply of the omasum?

Left gastric artery

206

What are the three arteries that supply the Ileum in the canine?

-Ileal arteries of the jejunal arteries
-Mesenteric ileal branch of ileocolic arteries
-Antimesenteric ileal branch of cecal branch of ileocolic artery

207

The _____ of the cranial mesenteric artery in the ox contributes to the blood supply of the last centrifugal loop of the ascending colon and distal jejunum.

Collateral branch

208

What are all the layers of the heart starting with the pericardium?

Pericardial mediastinal pleura
Fibrous pericardium
Parietal pericardium
Pericardial Sac
Visceral pericardium = Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

209

What supplies the left lobe of the pancreas?

Splenic artery

210

What drains blood from the liver and directly into the caudal vena cava?

Hepatic veins

211

The ____ synapse onto the adrenal gland and stimulate it to release adrenaline directly into the bloodstream.

Major Splanchnic nerves

212

What is the significance of the azygos vein between species?

Dog and horse: only RIGHT
Pigs: only LEFT
ruminant: BOTH right and left

213

What is the name for the internal ring that is bounded by the right and left longitudinal pillars and the cranial and caudal pillars and is the boundary between the dorsal and ventral ruminal sacs?

Intraruminal orifice