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Flashcards in Lab Quiz 1 Deck (170):
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Cranium

Portion of the skull that contains the braincase and upper rostral regions

1

Mandible

Part of the skull that includes the lower jaw

2

Braincase

A "box" of bone protecting the brain

Associated elements:
- Auditory bullae
- Occipital condyles
- Processes and ridges associated with muscle attachment
- Foramina and canals for the passage of nerves and blood vessels

3

Rostrum

Group of bones that project anteriorly from the anterior edges of the orbit

Includes:
- Upper jaw
- Bones surrounding the nasal passage
- Bones dividing nasal passage and oral cavity

4

Orbit

Eye socket

5

Nasal Bones

Are long and slender
Form the roof of the nasal passage
Paired; meet at the midline

Are situated dorsally and form part of the rostrum

6

Frontal Bones

Paired
Posterior to the nasal bones, form the forehead
Extend down the side of the skull to form the inner wall of the orbit

Includes:
- postorbital process
- temporal ridges/sagittal crest

7

Postorbital Process

Projection of the frontal bone that marks the posterior margin of the orbit

8

Parietal Bones

Paired, posterior to the frontal bones

9

Interparietal

Small unpaired bone located between the posterior edges of the parietals

Fused posteriorly with the occipital in Canis

10

Temporal ridges

Ridges on the frontal bones near the postorbital processes; serve as sites for muscle attachments

Continue posteriorly until they converge to form the sagittal crest

11

Sagittal crest

Crest running antero-posteriorly on the skull, serves as a site for muscle attachments

12

Occipital Bone

Single fused bone
Forms the posterior portion of the skull

Includes:
- Foramen magnum
- Occipital condyles
- Auditory bullae
- Occipital crests
- Paraoccipital processes

13

Foramen magnum

Hole near the centre of the occipital through which the spinal cord passes

Flanked by the occipital condyles

14

Occipital condyles

Paired knobs which flank the foramen magnum on the occipital bone

Articulate with the atlas (first cervical vertebra)

15

Premaxillae

Tooth-bearing bones at the anterior end of the rostrum

Contain two branches:
- Palatal branches meet along the midline and form the anterior portion of the hard palate
- Nasal branches project dorsally and posteriorly to form the sides of the nares

16

Nares

anterior opening of the nasal passages

17

Maxillae

Posterior to the premaxillae
Form the major portions of the side of the rostrum

Includes:
- Infraorbital canal/foramen

18

Infraorbital canal/foramen

Hole in each maxilla that terminates in the orbit
Serves as the passage for blood vessels and nerves to get to the snout

Canal:
- When it's a large hole, elongated
Foramen:
- Small, non-elongated hole

19

Hard palate

Separates the buccal cavity from the nasal passages

Consists of the palatal branches of the premaxilla and maxilla as well as the palatines

20

Palatines

Paired bones
Posterior to the maxillae on the ventral surface of the cranium

21

Vomer

Unpaired bone that forms a septum between the two nasal passages

22

Turbinals

A.K.A. turbinate bones

Highly convoluted bones within the nasal passages

23

Pterygoids

Paired bones posterior to the vomer

24

Presphenoid

Unpaired bone posterior to the vomer, medial to the pterygoids and anterior to the basisphenoid

25

Temporal fossae

Large space between the zygomatic arches and the remainder of the cranium
Posterior to the orbit (may not be separated in all species)

Some of the muscles pass through this

26

Zygomatic arches

Conspicuous bony arches that form the ventral and lateral borders of the orbit

Short process on dorsal edge marks the posterior edge of the orbit

27

Jugal

Anterior portion of the zygomatic arch
Articulates with the zygomatic process of the maxilla

28

Squamosal

Bones ventral to the parietals

Zygomatic process articulates with the posterior portion of the jugal to form the zygomatic arch

29

Postorbital bar

When the process on the zygomatic arch is continuous with the postorbital process on the frontal

Separates the orbit from the temporal fossa

30

Mandibular fossa

Articulation surface for the lower jaw

On the ventral side of the base of each zygomatic process of the squamosal

31

Lacrimal

Bone inside each orbit at the anterior root of each zygomatic arch

Has a foramen which is for the passage of the lacrimal (tear) duct

32

Auditory bullae

Bulbous structures between the mandibular fossae and the occipital condyles

Not present in all mammals

33

External Auditory Meatus

Opening on the side of each auditory bulla
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) is stretched across it

Within each bulla is the middle ear chamber; contains three ossicles

34

Auditory ossicles

- Incus
- Malleus
- Stapes

35

Dentary

Paired bones that form the mandible

Firmly attached in carnivorans and fused in primates

Two major parts: body and ramus

36

Body

Horizontal portion of each dentary that normally bears teeth

37

Ramus

Vertically projecting portion of the dentary

38

Mandibular condyle

Portion of the mandible that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the cranium

Flanked dorsally by the coronoid process and ventrally by the angular process

39

Coronoid Process

Is dorsal to the mandibular condyle and extends to fit into the temporal fossa

Is a surface for muscle attachments

40

Angular Process

Ventral to the mandibular condyle
Protrudes posteriorly

41

Masseteric Fossa

Depression near the bases of the processes on the ramus

Can be deep in some mammals

42

Determination of maturity

- Presence of deciduous teeth means they are definitely immature
- As an individual gets older the degree of fusion between cranial sutures increases

43

Crown

Portion of a tooth that is exposed above the gumline

44

Root

Portion of a tooth that fits into the alveolus

45

Alveolus

Portion of the jaw that contains the tooth sockets

46

Hypsodont

Teeth with particularly high crowns

47

Brachydont

Teeth with especially low crowns

48

Cusps

Points and bumps on the crown

Can be unicuspid, bicuspid, tricuspid, etc.

49

Dentine

Bonelike material that makes up the major portion of each tooth

50

Enamel

Hard material that covers the dentine of the crown

51

Cementum

Bonelike material that covers the dentine of the root

52

Pulp

Central, living portion of a growing tooth

53

Root canal

One or more openings in the base of a tooth that supply blood vessels and nerves to the pulp

54

Rooted

When a tooth reaches a certain size and the root canals restrict, restricting blood flow and stopping growth

55

Rootless

When the opening of the root canals never constrict and thus the teeth grow throughout the life of the mammal

56

Diphyodont

Having only two sets of teeth: deciduous and permanent

57

Deciduous Teeth

A.K.A. milk teeth

Set of teeth that are present in immature mammals

58

Permanent Teeth

Set of teeth that are retained for the remainder of an individual's life

59

Monophyodont

Only one set of teeth are grown and used throughout the animal's life
E.g. toothed cetaceans

60

Tooth replacement in animals that feed on harsh vegetation

Tooth replacement occurs as the teeth are worn away

61

Heterodont

When an individual has two or more morphologically different teeth in their jaw

62

Homodont

When all teeth in the jaw have the same basic shape

63

Incisors

Rooted in the premaxillary bone on the upper jaw
Usually unicuspid with a single root, generally chisel-shaped

There are never more than three incisors in each jaw quadrant in placental mammals
Marsupials may have up to five incisors in each half of the upper jaw and four in each half of the lower jaw

64

Canines

Most anterior teeth rooted in the maxilla
Never more than one per quadrant
Usually long, conspicuous and unicuspid with a single root

65

Diastema

When there is a wide space between the anterior teeth and cheek teeth

Generally caused by the absence of some teeth

66

Caniniform

When the most conspicuous tooth in the anterior part of the jaw is not a canine but rather an incisor that looks like a canine

Canine is usually absent or resembles a premolar

67

Incisiform

When the canine resembles an incisor

Usually occurs when the first premolar is caniniform

68

Premolars

The teeth just posterior to the canines
Have deciduous predecessors in the milk dentition

- In placental mammals with four premolars, the first does not have a deciduous precursor
- This also occurs in some other mammals with less than four premolars

69

Molars

Situation posteriorly to the premolars
Never have deciduous predecessors
Usually larger than premolars and have more cusps

70

Cheek Teeth

A.K.A. postcanine teeth, molariform teeth

The premolars and molars

Frequently called this because it can be difficult to distinguish between premolars and molars

Structure of the cheek teeth is one of the most important criteria in the classification of mammals and inferring their diet

71

Marsupial Teeth

Incisors: max. 5 upper, 4 lower
Canine: 1
Premolars: max. 3
Molars: max. 4

72

Placental Teeth

Incisors: max. 3
Canine: 1
Premolars: max. 4
Molars: max. 3

73

Masticating

Chewing, or processing of the food

74

Tribosphenic

Simple, triangle-shaped cheek teeth with three main cusps

Found in early marsupials and placental mammals of the Cretaceous; has been modified in various modern lineages and is found in many insect-eating mammals

Crests between cusps can form a V-shape or W-shape

75

Bunodont

Teeth that have four main cusps; mostly square crown; frequently brachydont

Found in many omnivorous mammals

76

Quadritubercular

Teeth with four major cusps and a mostly quare crown

77

Hypsodont

Teeth with very high crowns; this is because plants are abrasive and quickly erode teeth

Found in herbivores

78

Lophodont

Cusps fuse to form elongated ridges known as lophs, creating elongated abrasive surfaces for the grinding of plant material

79

Selenodont

Ridges form in the teeth due to the elongation of a single cusp per ridge

Ridges are always crescent-shaped and longitudinally oriented

80

Selenolophodont

Teeth that combine aspects of both selenodont and lophodont teeth

Found in mammals such as horses

81

Prismatic Teeth

A tooth type that is characterized by many infoldings along the margins of the teeth

82

Secodont

Modification for a carnivorous diet where the cheek teeth are reduced to only have two major cusps

Scissor action is simulated by the upper and lower teeth shearing against one another, tears off flesh

83

Carnassial Teeth

Found only in the order Carnivora

Two teeth on each side of the jaw that do the majority of shearing; the largest and most conspicuous cheek teeth

In Adults:
- Fourth upper premolar
- First lower molar

In Juveniles:
- Third upper premolar
- Fourth lower premolar

84

Insectivorous Tooth Specializations

Three cusps of teeth are elongated into sharp, crescent-shaped ridges

Useful for cutting and crushing the hard, chitinous exoskeletons of insects

85

Omnivorous Tooth Specializations

Bunodont cheek teeth

86

Herbivorous Tooth Specializations

Hypsodont, lophodont, selenodont, or selenolophodont teeth

87

Rodent Tooth Specializations

Include:
- simplification of occlusal pattern
- fusion of cusps
- prismatic teeth

88

Carnivorous Tooth Specializations

Secodont teeth
Carnassials in Carnivora

89

Piscivorous Tooth Specializations

Cheek teeth are reduced to a series of sharp unicuspid teeth

90

Myrmecophagy

When an animal feeds on large quantities of small insects such as ants and termites

E.g. echidnas, anteaters, pangolins

91

Edentulate

When an organism lacks teeth entirely

92

Baleen

Plates in the mouths of the baleen whales which filter krill from the ocean water

93

Dental Formula

Shorthand method used to indicate the numbers of each tooth in a particular mammal

E.g. (Human):
- 2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3

94

Ancestral Dental Formulae

The numbers of teeth found in mammalian ancestors

Reduction from this number is common but an increase is very rare

95

Ancestral Marsupial Dental Formula

I5/4 C1/1 P3/3 M4/4

Total = 50

96

Ancestral Placental Dental Formula

I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3

Total = 44

97

Grouped Dental Formula

When the premolars and molars are impossible to distinguish and there are not seven cheek teeth in each quadrant, the premolars and molars are grouped together in the dental formula

E.g. I3/2 C1/1 P+M5/5; Total 34

98

Axial Skeleton

Portion of the skeleton consisting of the midline of the body proper

Includes:
- Skull
- Vertebrae
- Bones of the thoracic cavity; rib cage

99

Dermal Skeleton

Generally rudimentary or absent in mammals

Big exception: armadillos

100

Appendicular Skeleton

Skeleton of the paired appendages as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdles

101

Cervical Vertebrae

First set of vertebrae immediately posterior to the skull

Seven are present in virtually all mammals
- Exceptions: sloths and sirenians

102

Atlas

First cervical vertebra

103

Axis

Second cervical vertabra

104

Hyoid Bones

Horseshoe-shaped bones in the neck; articulated to other bones by muscles and ligaments

Aid in tongue movement and swallowing

105

Thoracic Vertebrae

Vertebrae that articulate with the ribs to help form the thoracic cavity

106

Ribs

Have a head that articulates with the body of a thoracic vertebra as well as another articulation point that touches the transverse process of an adjacent vertebra

Distal ends of anterior ones articulate with the sternum, more posterior ones connect indirectly via cartilage
- May be a final (few) pair(s) of unattached free ribs

107

Sternum

The series of bony segments that provide the midventral completion of the thoracic cavity

108

Costal Ribs

Ribs that connect with one another and ultimately the sternum indirectly via cartilage

109

Free Ribs

The most posterior ribs that do not connect with the sternum at all, either indirectly or directly

110

Lumbar Vertebrae

Form the lower back and are the arch that supports the muscular-walled abdominal cavity

111

Sacral Vertebrae

Vertebrae that articulate with the pelvic girdle

Are often somewhat fused together and are sometimes fused to the pelvic bones as well

112

Caudal Vertebrae

Vertebrae that make up the tail

Some are usually present, but may be reduced to a few small, fused rudiments in "tailless" species (i.e. humans)

113

Baculum

A.K.A. os penis

Bone located within the penis

Structure varies greatly between groups; found in all carnivores, most primates/rodents/bats, some insectivores

Much smaller os clitoris is found in the glans clitoris of females of species whose males have a baculum

114

Pectoral limb

Forelimb

115

Scapula

Shoulder blade
Large, plate-like bone embedded in muscles dorsal and/or lateral to the ribs
Has no direct articulation with any bones in the axial skeleton

116

Clavicle

Extends from the glenoid fossa (shoulder socket in the scapula) to the sternum

Provides the base for the anterior limb

Reduced or absent in mammals adapted to run on hard ground

117

Scapular Spine

Ridge of bone extending vertically for much of the length of the scapula

Provides additional surface area for muscle attachment

118

Coracoid

Normally the third main bone in the pectoral girdle; rudimentary and fused with the scapula in marsupials and placental mammals

Well-developed in monotremes

119

Humerus

Proximal element of the pectoral limb

Large head articulates with the glenoid fossa in a ball-and-socket joint, allowing great mobility

120

Ulna

Articulates proximally with the humerus in a hinge joint (movement occurs in only one plane)

121

Radius

Articulates proximally with the humerus in a way that allows it to rotate around the ulna

More medial of the radius and ulna, aligns with the first digit

122

Olecranon Process

Extends proximally beyond the humerus

Short arm lever for attachment of muscles that extend the forearm

Prevents the forelimb from being completely straightened in most mammals

123

Manus

Hand or forefoot

124

Carpals

Small bones located posteriorly on the manus

Allow for sturdy flexibility in the wrist

125

Pentadactyl

Primitive condition for mammals

Have five digits on the hand/foot

Reduction is common, addition is not

126

Metacarpals

Elongate bones, one for each digit

Enclosed within the forefoot

127

Phalanges

Singular: phalanx

Extend from the distal end of each metacarpal to form each digit

First digit has two phalanges, 2-5 have three

128

Pollex

Most medial digit on the forefoot

Has only two phalanges

129

Pelvic Limb

Hindlimb

130

Pelvic Girdle

Hip Girdle, single structure formed by the fusion of three pairs of bones
- Ilia (s. ilium) lie dorsally and articulate with the sacral vertebrae
- Ischia (s. ischium) direct posteriorly and form the bony part of the rump
- Pubic bones are paired, project anteriorly and ventrally; joined on distal ends

Ring through which the digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts all exit the body

131

Pubic Symphasis

The junction between the two pubic bones

Somewhat elastic in the females of some species to allow for the passage of a large fetus during birth

132

Acetabulum

Large socket that receives the head of the femur

Is at the point where the three pelvic bone meet

133

Femur

Proximal element of the pelvic limb

134

Tibia

More medial of the distal leg bones

Larger than the fibula in most mammals

135

Fibula

Forms the distal end of the leg along with the tibia

Often reduced in mammals, and is generally smaller than the tibia

136

Patella

"Kneecap"

Develops within a tendon on the anterior side of the knee joint between the femur and tibia and fibula

137

Tarsal Bones

A.K.A. ankle bones

Correspond to the carpals of the forelimb

138

Calcaneous

Largest of the tarsals - "heel bone"

Extends posteriorly from the joint with the tibia

Serves as the attachment site for the achilles tendon; similar to that of the olecranon process

139

Astragalus

Large tarsal bone adjacent and medial to the calcaneum

140

Metatarsals

Elongate bones that extend from the tarsals

Correspond to the metacarpals on the forelimb

141

Hallux

Most medial digit on the foot

Consists of two phalanges

142

Pes

Hind foot, including the tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges

143

Claws

Most primitive of the protective keratinizations found on the digits

Encases the last phalanx of the digit
Unguis is better developed and harder, curves longitudinally and transversely
Subunguis is enclosed between the lower edges of the unguis

Can aid in increasing traction and stability, digging, climbing, catching prey

144

Unguis

The dorsal, scale-like plate on a claw/nail

145

Subunguis

Ventral plate on a claw/nail

146

Nails

Modified claw that covers only the dorsal surface of the end of a digit

Unguis is broad and flattened
Subunguis is reduced to a small remnant that lies under the tip of the nail

Provide less protection than claws but allow for greater precision in manipulation of stuff

147

Hoof

Unguis curves almost completely around the end of the digit and encloses the subunguis within

Pad lies just behind the hoof and is called the frog

In ungulates, only the hoofs are in contact with the ground, providing good traction and preventing wear on the digits

148

Ambulatory Locomotion

Walking!

Generalized mammalian limb structure is well suited for this

Unmodified metacarpals and metatarsals
Pectoral and pelvic limbs about equal in length
Joints allow movement of limbs in several planes

149

Plantigrade

Feet lie flat on the substrate
All phalanges, metapodials and carpals/tarsals lie on the ground

150

Cursorial Locomotion

Running!

Adaptations:
- Digitigrade or unguligrade
- Increase in limb length increases stride length

151

Digitigrade

Metacarpal and metatarsal portions of the feet never touch the substrate during locomotion

Frequently exhibit reduction in the number of toes and elongation of the metacarpals and metatarsals

152

Unguligrade

Phalanges are elevated so only the hooves are in contact with the substrate

Proximal portions of the limbs are shortened and very muscular

Radius usually fused with the ulna and fibula with tibia

Radius, ulna, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges are usually greatly elongated

Generally greatly reduced number of digits

153

Saltatorial Locomotion

Move using a series of leaps with the hindlimbs being the main propulsive force

Can be quadrupedal

154

Spring

Leap in which all four feet are involved

155

Ricochetal

Form of saltatorial movement where the organism moves bipedally; forefeet are not used

Have greatly elongated and muscular hind limbs, reduced forelimbs

Very long pes; tail is also usually long and tufted at the tip, functions as a counterbalance

Useful for quick movement over soft substrates, frequent in desert mammals

156

Graviportal

Essentially columnar limb

Bottom of the foot rests on a thick cushioning pad

Seen in heavy mammals (i.e. elephants)
Can be considered semi-digitigrade - arguments could be made for digitigrade or plantigrade

157

Semifossorial Locomotion

Mammals that burrow into the ground but also spend a lot of time above ground

Constantly alert, so eyes are usually placed high on the head

158

Fossorial Locomotion

Live underground and only rarely come to the surface

Body is compact
Tail is reduced or rudimentary
Neck is very short
Pinnae are tiny/absent
Eyes are usually vestigial
Pectoral limbs and girdles are very robust

159

Semiaquatic Locomotion

Animals that spend a lot of time swimming, but not all the time

Characteristics:
- Webbed feet
- Some have a fringe of stout hair along the edge of the foot (increases surface area)
- Generally fusiform body
- Frequently flattened tail
- Valvular ears and nostrils, eyes protected by membrane
- Pinnae and other projections reduced

160

Pinniped Locomotion

Spend most of their lives in the water but come ashore to give birth

Limbs are modified into flippers
Shortened neck and small forelimbs in phocid seals
Long neck and large forelimbs in otariids

161

Aquatic Locomotion

Cetaceans and sirenians, do not regularly come to land

Body very fusiform
Short, thick neck
Even taper from the trunk to the tip of the tail
Forelimbs modified to flippers
Hindlimbs are absent externally
Tail tip laterally expanded and dorsoventrally flattened to form paddle-shaped structure or fluke

Swim by undulating the posterior part of the body in a vertical plane; pectoral appendages used primarily for maneuvering; dorsal fin aids in stabilization

162

Fluke

Tail tip in dugongs and cetaceans

Laterally expanded and dorsoventrally flattened

Composed of fibrous connective tissue without bony support

163

Dorsal Fin

Fin on the dorsal side of the body

Present in many cetaceans

164

Prehensile Tail

Tail that can be used as another limb, strong enough to support the animal's body weight

165

Scansorial Locomotion

Animals that run through the trees (e.g. tree squirrels)

Little obvious modifications for arboreal life
- Sharp, strong claws (scampering up vertical surfaces)
- Long, fluffy tails for balance

166

Arboreal Locomotion

Animals that cling to branches by prehensile and opposable digits and/or prehensile tails

167

Brachiating Locomotion

Swing through the trees using hands
- Kind of an inverted bipedal walk with the hands

Olecranon process is small and allows the arm to extend perfectly straight

Very long fingers

168

Sloth Locomotion

Found in sloths and colugos

Inverted quadrupedal walk - animal hangs suspended from all four limbs

Hang from strong, curved claws

169

Gliding Locomotion

Have a patagium between the forelimbs and hindlimbs

Allow them to glide between trees

Maneuver by lifting and lowering the limbs and tail in midair