Lab Quiz 3 Flashcards Preview

EEB388 > Lab Quiz 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Quiz 3 Deck (103):


Superorder within Eutheria, contains groups:
- Euarchonta
- Glires



Group within Euarchontoglires, contains orders:
- Dermoptera
- Scandentia
- Primates



Group within Euarchontoglires, contains orders:
- Lagomorpha
- Rodentia



Order within Euarchonta
Colugos/"flying lemurs"
Oriental and Australian regions

- Have an extensive patagium that allows them to glide
- Herbivores
- Move similarly to sloths when moving within a tree
- Crepuscular/nocturnal


Identification of Dermoptera

- Dental formula I 2/3 : C 1/1 : P 2/2 : M 3/3
- First upper incisors small, widely separated
- Second upper incisors caniniform
- Pectinate mandibular incisors 1+2, with each "tooth" a cusp
- Third lower incisor has 5-6 cusps
- Canine incisiform
- Brachyodont cheek teeth
- Skull broad and dorsoventrally flattened
- Furred patagia extend from neck, to phalanges on manus, phalanges on pes and tail
- Only patagia to extend all around


Pectinate Teeth

Comblike teeth, have long slender cusps resembling the teeth of a comb



Order within Euarchonta
Tree Shrews
Oriental region

- Arboreal, semiarboreal, terrestrial
- Diurnal save for one species
- Omnivorous
- Large eyes
- Short facial vibrissae
- Low, rounded pinnae


Identification of Scandentia

- Dental formula I 2/3 : C 1/1 : P 3/3 : M 3/3
- Upper incisors large, sometimes caniniform
- Canine small and resembled ant. premolars
- Palate lacks large perforations
- Postorbital bar present
- Zygomatic arch complete & perforated w/ prominent hole
- Much more pointed face and shorter vibrissae than squirrels



Order within Euarchonta
Primates (duh)
Include suborders:
- Strepsirrhini
- Haplorhini



Suborder within Primates
Lemurs, lorises, galagos, etc.
Ethopian and Oriental regions

- Mostly nocturnal



Suborder within Primates
Tarsiers, New World, Old World

- Mostly diurnal, save tarsier and owl monkey


Identification of Primates

- Most have five digits, with pollex reduced or absent in some
- Plantigrade
- Prehensile digits with opposable pollex/hallux in most
- Nail always present on pollex, most have nails (some claws) on other digits
- Elongated calcaneum
- Orbits face anteriorly
- Narrow interorbital space
- Enlarged orbital cavity
- Stereoscopic vision for precise depth perception
- Postorbital bar or postorbital plate always present
- Bunodont and brachyodont cheek teeth
- Incisors do not exceed 2/2, premolars do not exceed 3/3


Identification of Strepsirrhini

- Lower incisors form a tooth comb (may be secondarily modified)
- Rhinarium naked and moist, connected to mouth
- Nostrils lateral slits shaped like commas
- Claw on second toe used for grooming
- Bicornate uterus
- Postorbital bar


Identification of Haplorhini

- Rhinarium dry, separate from mouth
- Nostrils are oval in shape, face outward in platyrrhines and downward in catarrhines
- Postorbital plate in all but tarsiers
- Fun fact: cannot produce vitamin C
- Uterus has single chamber



Group within Laurasiatheria, contains orders:
- Erinaceomorpha
- Soricomorpha
Hedgehogs, shrews, moles, etc.

- May be that this is actually the order name, with just other families in it



Order within Eulipotyphla
Hedgehogs & gymnures
Ethiopian, Palearctic, Oriental regions

- Omnivorous
- Some hibernate
- Hair modified into spines in hedgehogs


Identification of Erinaceomorpha

- Dental formula I 2-3/2-3 : C 1/1 : P 3-4/2-4 : M 3/3
- Enlarged first upper incisors, also first lower in some species
- Bunodont upper molars
- Moderately large eyes and pinnae
- Snout usually long
- Complete zygomatic arches
- Plantigrade, five digits (except one genus)
- Can be distinguished from tenrecs (hedgehogs) by complete zygomatic arch, absence from Madagascar



Order within Eulipotyphla
Shrews, moles, desmans, solenodons
Nearctic, Palearctic, Ethiopian, Neotropical regions


Identification of Shrews

Nearctic, Palearctic, Ethopian
- First incisor is enlarged and falciform
- Remaining teeth are small and peg-like
- Teeth may be pigmented
- Milk teeth shed before birth
- Long, narrow skull
- Zygomatic arch absent
- Auditory bullae absent
- Postorbital process absent
- Double articulation on mandibular condyle due to two processes



Bicuspid with forward projecting main cusp and small secondary cusp behind


Identification of Moles and Desmans

Palearctic, Nearctic
- Body fusiform
- Eyes tiny and sometimes covered by skin
- Legs short and powerful
- Forelimbs rotated so palms face posteriorly
- Forelimb claws robust
- Pinnae absent
- Fur velvety in moles to allow for easy movement in the burrow
- Skull is long and flattened, with a narrow rostrum
- Complete zygomatic arches
- Auditory bullae present
- Snout snorkel-like in desmans
- Teeth never pigmented


Identification of Solenodons

- Snout long and flexible
- Feet large and clawed
- Tail long, nearly naked
- Zygomatic arch incomplete
- Auditory bulla absent
- Os proboscidis bone supports tip of rostrum
- Molar cusps are V-shaped
- Second lower incisor has deep groove for transfer of toxic saliva



Order within Glires
Rabbits, hares, pikas
Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical, Ethiopian, Oriental regions

- Tails are short to absent
- Hind feet are always at least somewhat larger than forefeet
- Rabbits have altrical young
- Hares have precocial young
- Almost completely herbivorous
- Cacophagy in most species, allows them to assimilate more plant nutrients and B vitamins



Young are born, naked, blind and are helpless



Young are born furred, sighted and capable of moving around on their own


Identification of Lagomorpha

- Dental formula I 2/1 : C 0/0 : P 3/2 : M 2-3/3
- First incisors large and "rodent-like"
- Second upper incisors small, peg-like, located directly behind first incisors
- Incisors rootless
- Long diastema between incisors and cheek teeth
- Cheek teeth hypsodont, rootless
- Cutting edge of upper anterior incisor straight in leporids and V-shaped in pikas
- Maxilla perforated on the side by either single large opening (pikas) or numerous small openings (rabbits/hares)
- Forefeet digitigrade
- Hind feet plantigrade
- Can be distinguished from rodents by second upper incisor, which is absent in all rodents



Order within Laurasiatheria
Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian regions (all of them)
Two kinds: pteropodids and non-pteropodids

- "hand-winged ones"
- Second largest mammalian order
- Mostly insectivorous, but some are frugivorous, nectivorous, piscivorous, sanguinivorous
- Some (but not all) use echolocation to navigate environment and catch prey
- Mostly nocturnal



Old World fruit bats and flying foxes

- Do not echolocate
- Fox-like faces
- Large body size
- Mostly fruit eaters, some nectar and pollen eaters
- Flight slow and maneuverable



Remaining 18 families of bats that use echolocation

- Usually small
- Reduced eyes
- Specialized nose pads/lower lips
- Ears have a tragus
- Wings are more derived than pteropodids, varies according to foraging patterns



Use of sound to investigate environment and find prey
- Pulse sounds produced by the larynx (tongue-clicks in only two echolocating pteropodids)
- Pulse sounds emitted through nose or mouth
- Reflected sounds received by the ears
- Many species have fleshy projections on nose and/or ears, thought to help with echolocation


Identification of Chiroptera

- Forelimb modified to form wing capable of self-powered flight
- Metacarpals and phalanges of digits 2-5 elongated and connected by a patagium
- First digit of manus always clawed
- Well-developed clavicle
- Sternum often keeled
- Short hindlimbs are rotates 90-180 degrees from typical mammalian posture
- All digits on pes have claws



Portion of the patagium that extends between the hind legs and incorporates the tail, if present



Cartilaginous spur that extendsmedially from the ankle of the hind foot and supports the membrane of the uropatagium



Flap or projection of the nose, present in many echolocating bats



Fleshy lobe that projects from the lower medial corner of the pinna, present in most echolocating bats



Flap on the lower lateral edge of the pinna, especially well-developed in echolocating bats with no tragus


Identification of Pteropodids

- Face fox-like or lemur-like
- Eyes are large
- Nose usually does not have noseleaf
- Tragus absent
- Well-developed postorbital process
- Claws on both first and second digits of manus
- Cheek teeth have simplified cusps
- Can be distinguished from carnivorans because they have non-secodont cheek teeth


Identification of Non-pteropodids

- Capable of echolocating using sounds from the larynx
- Eyes often reduced
- Tragus present (except in two families)
- Claws only on first digit of manus
- Large ears
- W-shaped ectoloph on cheek teeth
- Large gaps in the premaxilla



Family within Soricomorpha
Contains 6 Ontario species:
- Blarina brevicauda


Blarina brevicauda

Northern short-tailed shrew

- Largest shrew in N.A.
- Makes shallow burrows in soil, leaf litter, even snow
- Makes nests in said burrows that are lined in grass and fur
- Active mostly at night or early morning
- Poisonous saliva can paralyze prey
- Diet of invertebrates - worms, snails, etc.
- Active year-round
- Lives less than a year
- Most common in hardwood forests with deep leaf litter


Identification of Blarina brevicauda - Skull

- Mental foramen located under posterior cusp of fourth lower tooth
- Base of the first lower incisor located behind the anterior margin of the fourth lower tooth
- Five unicuspids in upper jaw


Identification of Blarina brevicauda - Skin

- Total length greater than 95 mm
- Tail length less than 30% of total length
- Ears small and concealed by fur
- Eyes have bare patch of skin surrounding
- Long claws on front feet


Cryptotis parva

Least shrew
Fairly common

- Eats a variety of invertebrates
- Fairly social for a shrew
- Prefers overgrown fields and brush


Identification of Cryptotis parva - Skull

- Four upper unicuspids, fourth small and hidden from lateral view
- First upper incisor has no medial tine


Identification of Cryptotis parva - Skin

- Tail length less than 30% total length
- Total length less than 95 mm
- Back dull brown to nearly black
- Underside grey-brown to silver
- Ears very small and concealed by fur


Sorex cinereus

Masked shrew
Common and widespread

- Travels on the surface or under leaf litter
- Feeds on small invertebrates/vertebrates
- Lifespan: ~15 months
- Lives in a variety of habitats


Identification of Sorex cinereus - Skull

- Greatest length of skull less than 17.5mm
- Five upper unicuspids, fifth smaller but still visible


Identification of Sorex cinereus - Skin

- Tail long, greater than 30% total length
- Black/brown, underside paler than back
- Tail bicoloured with distinct black tuft
- Hind foot length usually 10mm or more, but less than 16mm
- Total length less than or equal to 100mm
- Feet and toes do not have fringe of whitish hairs


Sorex fumeus

Smoky shrew
Fairly common

- Travels in tunnels under leaf litter and rotting logs
- Feeds on medium-sized invertebrates and salamanders
- Lifespan: 14-17 months
- Lives in moist areas in hardwood and coniferous forests


Identification of Sorex fumeus - Skull

- Third unicuspid usually larger than fourth in lateral view
- Greatest length of skull more than 20.5mm
- Four unicuspids readily visible in lateral view


Identification of Sorex fumeus - Skin

- Summer coat: back grey-brown, underside pale brown
- Winter coat: back dark grey, underside pale grey
- Ears conspicuous
- Tops of feet whitish
- Tail bicoloured with slight tuft at tip
- Total length greater than 100mm, but less than 130mm
- Hind foot length less than 16mm
- Tail length greater than 30% total length


Sorex hoyi

Pygmy shrew

- Makes tiny burrows under leaf litter and near soil surface
- Feeds on small arthropods, worms, carrion, and some plant material
- Lives in variable habitats


Identification of Sorex hoyi - Skull

- Only three unicuspids visible in lateral view (3rd and 5th tiny)
- 3rd and 5th unicuspids visible in ventral view
- First upper incisor has medial tine


Identification of Sorex hoyi - Skin

- Back dull smoky brown to bright copper brown
- Underside pale grey-brown (summer), whitish (winter)
- Tail bicolour, greater than 30% total length
- Hind foot usually 10mm or less
- Total length less than or equal to 100mm
- Feet and toes


Sorex palustris

American water shrew

- Swims well
- Appears silver in water because fur traps air, increasing buoyancy
- Hairs on hind feet trap air, allowing it to run across the water surface
- Eats aquatic insect larvae, small fish, terrestrial invertebrates
- Max. lifespan 18 months


Identification of Sorex palustris - Skull

- More than 3 unicuspids readily visible in lateral view
- Third unicuspid usually smaller than fourth in lateral view
- Greatest length of skull more than 20.5mm


Identification of Sorex palustris - Skin

- Total length greater than 130mm
- Long, bicoloured tail, greater than 30% total length
- Back blackish, sometimes flecked with white
- Underside silvery white or buffy brown
- Feet large, greater than 16mm
- Toes on hind foot partially webbed
- Hind feet fringed on sides with white hair


Condylura cristata

Star-nosed mole
Common locally

- Swim well
- Makes tunnels leading to water
- Shallow or deep burrows
- Active on and under snow
- Feeds on aquatic invertebrates and small fish
- Star on nose used to detect electric fields of earthworms and other prey in water
- Lives in wet areas in meadows, woods, swamps, streams


Identification of Condylura cristata - Skull

- First upper incisor points down and forward
- First lower incisor points forward, basically horizontal
- Palate ends opposite or in front of last upper cheek tooth


Identification of Condylura cristata - Skin

- Has 22 fleshy, tentacle-like appendages around the tip of the snout
- Nostrils face downward
- Tail long and well haired, thick at base and tapers to point at tip


Parascalops breweri

Hairy-tailed mole
Common locally

- Active day or night
- Digs shallow tunnels that form inconspicuous ridges in the soil
- Moves deeper underground in fall
- Eats earthworms and incests, esp. beetles
- Lives in deciduous and coniferous woods, oldfields, roadsides with light, well-drained soil


Identification of Parascalops breweri - Skull

- Auditory bullae incomplete (partially open on bottom)
- 11 teeth in each half of the lower jaw
- Greatest width of skull less than 16mm
- First upper incisor essentially vertical
- Palate ends just in back of last upper cheek tooth


Identification of Parascalops breweri - Skin

- Long, narrow snout
- Nostrils open at side of snout
- Tail has long, coarse hair (5mm +)
- Hindfeet less than 21mm long


Scalopus aquaticus

Eastern mole
Common locally

- Burrows create prominent ridges on soil surface
- Uses deep tunnels in winter
- Digs with front feet but also pushes dirt with snout
- Produces large mole hills when excavating deep tunnels
- Eats earthworms and other invertebrates, also plant material
- Lifespan 6 years or more
- Lives in fields or woods with soft, moist soils


Identification of Scalopus aquaticus - Skull

- Auditory bullae complete
- Eight teeth in each lower jaw
- Greatest width of skull more than 16mm
- First upper incisor vertical
- Palate ends in back of last upper cheek tooth


Identification of Scalopus aquaticus - Skin

- Narrow snout
- Nostrils open on top of snout
- Tail sparsely furred or naked
- All feet webbed
- Feet have hairy fringe
- Hind foot length greater than 21mm


Lepus americanus

Snowshoe hare
Common locally

- Populations in the north fluctuate greatly on a 10-year cycle
- Mostly nocturnal or crepuscular; seeks shelter by day
- Eats grass, green vegetation, and berries in summer; mostly twigs and bark in winter
- Lives in forests and dense thickets


Identification of Lepus americanus - Skull

- Greatest length of skull less than 88mm


Identification of Lepus americanus - Skin

- Upper parts brown-dark brown in summer, with dorsal hairs slate grey at base
- Entirely white in winter, except for black ear tips
- Hind feet very long, heavily furred
- Tail length less than 50mm


Identification of Hares

- Supraoccipital region usually higher than wide
- Boundaries of interparietal bone not usually discernible
- Posterior border of supraorbital process generally not touching the cranium


Identification of Rabbits

- Supraoccipital region usually wider than high
- Boundaries of interparietal bone usually discernible
- Posterior border of supraorbital process in contact with cranium


Lepus europaeus

European hare
Populations declining in N.A.

- Mainly nocturnal or crepuscular
- Tries to outrun predators instead of seeking shelter
- Feeds on green vegetation, seeds, berries in summer; twigs and bark in winter
- Lives in meadows, pastures and cultivated fields
- Introduced


Identification of Lepus europaeus - Skull

- Greatest length of skull more than 88mm


Identification of Lepus europaeus - Skin

- Ears long with black tip
- Tail length greater than 50mm
- Tail dark above and white below
- Tail held down when running
- Legs, feet and lower sides orange-brown, snow white at base with black band before brown tip


Sylvilagus floridanus

Eastern cottontail

- Mainly nocturnal, may be active at dusk/dawn
- Eats herbaceous plants in summer, woody plants in winter
- Lives in thickets and oldfields, edges of hardwood forests, farmland, prairies, swamps


Identification of Sylvilagus floridanus - Skull

See identification of rabbits


Identification of Sylvilagus floridanus - Skin

- Back orange grizzled with black, sides paler and greyer, underside white
- Nape usually deep orange/rusty/cinnamon brown
- Cream coloured ring around eye
- Tail white below
- Hind foot length less than 115mm



Family within Lagomorpha
Includes rabbits and hares



Family within Chiroptera
Vesper bats
Only family found in Ontario


Eptesicus fuscus

Big brown bat
Common, widespread

- Emerges about a half hour after sunset
- Feeds on beetles and other insects
- Hunts over fields/streams, under streetlamps
- Common house bat in the east
- Migrates short distances in fall to hibernate in caves, mines, attics
- During hibernation, will still wake up and become active in response to temperature changes
- Lives in forests, farms and cities


Identification of Eptesicus fuscus - Skull

- Four upper cheek teeth on each side
- Greatest length of skull 17.5mm or more
- Two upper incisors on each side


Identification of Eptesicus fuscus - Skin

- Fur on back glossy and yellowish or dark brown
- Tragus broad and curved
- Tail tip extends beyond uropatagium
- Keeled calcar
- Forearm length greater than 40mm
- Total length greater than 105mm


Lasionycteris noctivagans

Silver-haired bat

- Emerges soon after sunset
- Has characteristic slow flight, sometimes following repeated circuit
- Mating occurs after fall migration
- Hibernation sites not well known
- Lives in forest and forest edge, usually near waterways


Identification of Lasionycteris noctivagans - Skull

- Shallow depression extending forward and medially from each orbit to nostril opening
- Two upper incisors on each side
- Five upper cheek teeth on each side, first is much smaller than second in lateral view
- Six lower cheek teeth on each side
- Greatest length of skull more than 14mm, less than 17.5mm


Identification of Lasionycteris noctivagans - Skin

- Fur on back blackish with silver tips
- Dark face
- Uropatagium furred on upper surface for about half its length


Lasiurus borealis

Eastern red bat

- Emerges early in the night
- Fly swiftly and often follow same path each night
- Eats moths and other insects
- Migrates south in fall, may swarm at cave entrances but hibernates amongst foliage
- Has also been found hibernating on the ground in leaf litter
- Lives in forests and on forest edges


Identification of Lasiurus borealis - Skull

- Greatest length of skull 15mm
- One upper incisor on each side


Identification of Lasiurus borealis - Skin

- Fur brick red to yellowish red
- Uropatagium furred on upper surface for most of its length


Lasiurus cinereus

Hoary bat
Common in western Ontario, uncommon in eastern Ontario

- Fast, direct flight
- Mainly eats moths, may attack small bats and other insects
- Feeds over streams and ponds, around streetlights
- Migrates long distances
- Winter roosts include sides of buildings and tree trunks
- Lives in deciduous and coniferous forests


Identification of Lasiurus cinereus - Skull

- Greatest length of skull 16mm or more
- One upper incisor on each side


Identification of Lasiurus cinereus - Skin

- Fur has four bands; outer layer brown and heavily frosted with white
- Yellow fur around face
- Uropatagium thickly furred on upper surface


Myotis leibii

Eastern small-footed myotis
Rare but poorly known

- Emerges at dusk to forage
- Flight slow and erratic
- Hibernates in winter
- Lives in deciduous and coniferous forests


Identification of Myotis leibii - Skull

- Greatest length of skull usually less than 14.1mm
- Least interorbital width less than 3.4mm
- Two upper incisors on each side
- Six upper cheek teeth on each side
- First and second upper cheek teeth equal in size in lateral view
- First and second upper cheek teeth smaller than third in lateral view


Identification of Myotis leibii - Skin

- Light brown fur with distinct black facial mask
- Very small
- Keeled calcar
- Hind foot length 8mm or less
- Forearm length less than 34mm
- Total length less than 85mm
- Tragus not sharply pointed
- Tragus less than 8mm in height
- Ear height 16mm or less
- Uropatagium not furred at all


Myotis lucifugus

Little brown bat
Very common

- Emerges at dusk or later
- Usually flies straight to water to forage and drink; may also forage above trees
- Feeds mainly on emerging aquatic insects, including some mosquitoes
- Consumes half its body weight in insects each night
- Hibernates in winter
- Lives in forests and rural areas, usually near streams and lakes
- Typically roosts in houses and other man-made structures


Identification of Myotis lucifugus - Skull

- Least interorbital width usually 4mm or more
- Greatest width of braincase usually 7.3mm or more
- Greatest length of skull usually 14.1mm or more
- Two upper incisors on each side
- Six upper cheek teeth on each side
- First and second upper cheek teeth equal in size in lateral view
- First and second upper cheek teeth smaller than third in lateral view


Identification of Myotis lucifugus - Skin

- Fur on back glossy, yellowish-brown
- Underside buff yellow or grey-white
- No obvious face mask
- Tragus straight and narrow
- Tragus not sharply pointed
- Tragus less than 8mm in height
- Ear height 16mm or less
- Forearm length greater than 34mm
- Hind foot length 8mm or more
- Calcar not obviously keeled
- Total length greater than 85mm
- Uropatagium not furred at all


Myotis septentrionalis

Northern long-eared myotis
Locally common and widespread

- Forages in upland forests
- Flies near understory vegetation
- Catches flying insects and grabs prey from vegetation
- Hibernates in small crevices in caves
- Lives in wooded areas


Identification of Myotis septentrionalis - Skull

- Least interorbital width usually less than 4mm, greater than 3.4mm
- Greatest width of braincase 7.3mm or less
- Greatest length of skill greater than 14.1mm
- Two upper incisors on each side
- Six upper cheek teeth on each side
- First and second upper cheek teeth equal in size in lateral view
- First and second upper cheek teeth smaller than third in lateral view


Identification of Myotus septentrionalis - Skin

- Back dark brown, yellow-brown, or blond
- Scruffy looking
- Hair dark to roots
- Ears long (16mm or more)
- Tragus long (8-9mm) and narrow, with pointed tip
- Calcar not keeled
- Uropatagium not furred at all


Pipistrellus subflavus

Eastern pipistrelle

- Emerges at sunset
- Flight slow and erratic
- Feeds on tiny flies and beetles
- Hunts over water and at forest edge
- Hibernates in caves and mines from November to April
- Lives in woodland or mixed farmland


Identification of pipistrellus subflavus - Skull

- Five upper cheek teeth on each side
- First upper cheek tooth much smaller than second
- Two upper incisors on each side
- Five lower cheek teeth on each side
- Greatest length of skull less than 14mm


Identification of pipistrellus subflavus - Skin

- Back brown, reddish, or pale buff grey (only in Florida)
- Fur tricoloured with dark root, pale midsection and brown tips
- Ears medium sized
- Tragus broad at base