Lab Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Quiz 4 Deck (155):
1

Rodentia

Order within Glires
Worldwide

- Approx. 42% all mammals
- Rootless, arc-shaped, chisel-edged incisors
- Mostly omnivorous

2

Identification of Rodentia

- Single arc-shaped incisor in each jaw quadrant
- Sharpness of chisel edge of each incisor maintained by differential wear on the anterior enamel an d dentine that makes up the bulk of the tooth
- Canines, majority/all premolars absent
- Cheek teeth range from 0-24
- Cheek teeth ever growing in some families
- Mandible moves anteroposteriorly in addition to laterally
- Incisors and cheek teeth cannot be occluded simultaneously
- Most are small
- External tail present (some exceptions)
- Well haired (except naked mole rat)
- Mostly quadrupedal, with some arid species capable of ricochetal locomotion
- Digits may be reduced to 4/3 instead of the usual 5/5
- Can be distinguished from wombats by lack of angular process of the ramus
- Can be distinguished from aye-ayes by lack of postorbital bar and posterior position of the foramen magnum
- Can be distinguished from lagomorphs and hyraxes by reduced number of incisors

3

Sciuromorphous

Masseter originates in front of the orbit and does not pass through the small infraorbital foramen
- Zygomatic arch extends and flares outward, forming a "zygomatic plate"
- Generally gnaw with incisors

4

Myomorphouse

Masseter pushes up through the orbit and passes through the infraorbital foramen
- Infraorbital foramen V, oval or round shaped
- Retains somewhat expanded zygomatic arch
- Intermediate between sciuromorphous and hystricomorphous
- Found in most rodents

5

Hystricomorphous

Masseter very well developed, passes through greatly enlarged infraorbital foramen
- Generally grind with molars

6

Carnivora

Order within Ferae, contains:
- Feliformia
- Caniformia
- Pinnipedia

- Mostly predaceous
- Keen sense of smell
- Great range of size
- Ambulatory, cursorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, semifossorial

7

Ferae

Group within Laurasiatheria, contains:
- Carnivora
- Pholidota

8

Fissiped

Term used for all non-pinniped carnivorans
- i.e. Feliformia + (Caniformia - Pinnipedia)
- Generally only found on continental land masses or freshwater, with the exception of polar bear, sea otter and S.A. marine otter

9

Feliformia

Suborder within Carnivora
Cats, civets/genets, hyaenas, mongooses, Malagasy carnivores

10

Caniformia

Suborder within Carnivora
Dogs/wolves, bears, pinnipeds, mustelids

11

Pinnipedia

Group within Caniformia
Seals, sea lions, walrus
- Found literally everywhere
- Mostly marine

12

Identification of Carnivora

- Canines usually large and conical
- Incisors usually 3/3, but 3/2 in sea otters and lowers 0-2 in Otariidae & Phocidae
- Secodont cheek teeth in most fissipeds; may be adapted for crushing or reduced
- Third upper molar (M3) never present
- Large, complex turbinals
- Well-developed zygomatic arches
- Sagittal crest frequently present
- Mandibular condyle/fossa transversely elongated, limited lateral movement
- Auditory bullae usually fully ossified, usually large
- Toes in fissipeds ending in large, curved claws

13

Carnassials (Adult)

Last upper premolar (P4)
First lower molar (m1)

14

Carnassials (Juvenile)

Next-to-last upper premolar (P3)
Last lower premolar (p4)

15

Identification of Feliformia

- Auditory bullae two-chambered; joined by a septum
- Claws strong and sharp
- Claws semi- or fully retractile (in sheath of skin when retracted)
- Rostrum tends to be short
- Cheek teeth reduced
- Carnassials highly developed for cutting

16

Identification of Caniformia

- Auditory bullae not divided by septa; may be partially chambered
- Claws never fully retractile, may be semi
- Rostrum longer
- More cheek teeth than feliforms
- Carnassials may be smaller than feliform

17

Identification of Pinnipedia

- Body insulated by thick layer of blubber
- Body fusiform, adapted for swimming
- Digits covered with skin to form flippers
- Forelimbs & hindlimbs paddle-like
- Pinnae reduced or absent
- Vibrissae well developed
- Premolars and molars homodont, usually unicuspid
- Tail short or absent
- External genitalia hidden in slits/grooves
- Knees and elbows included in body
- Elongated metapodials

18

Sciuridae

Family within Rodentia
Sciuromorphous
Squirrels, chipmunks, woodchucks (6 sp.)

19

Castoridae

Family within Rodentia
Sciuromorphous
Beaver (1 sp.)

20

Cricetidae

Family within Rodentia
Myomorphous
New World rats/mice (7 sp.)

21

Muridae

Family within Rodentia
Myomorphous
Old World rats/mice (2 sp.)

22

Dipodidae

Family within Rodentia
Hystricomorphous
Jumping mice (2 sp.)

23

Erethizontidae

Family within Rodentia
Hystricomorphous
New world porcupines (1 sp.)

24

Identification of Sciuridae (Skull)

- Postorbital process present on frontal bone, sharply pointed
- Infraorbital foramen smaller than foramen magnum
- Total length of skull usually less than 95mm

25

Identification of Sciuridae (Skin)

- Tail well furred & often bushy
- Longest tail hairs much longer than width of tail vertebrae, always >10mm
- Hind feet less than 2.5x forefeet

26

Glaucomys sabrinus

Northern flying squirrel
Widespread, common

- Nocturnal/crepuscular
- Mainly arboreal
- Active year-round
- Mainly eats nuts, seeds, tree sap, fungi, lichens
- Will also eat birds' eggs, nestlings, mice, insects, carrion (more carnivorous than other squirrels)
- Usually nests in tree cavities, also makes nests of leaves & twigs that are lined
- Usually solitary (may share in winter)
- Lives mainly in coniferous forests/mixed woods up to tree line

27

Identification of Glaucomys sabrinus (skull)

- GL 36mm - 40mm; GW >21.5mm; L upper row of cheek teeth >7mm
- Two internal divisions of auditory bullae visible externally
- Infraorbital foramen not visible in ventral view & anterior to first well-formed cheek tooth

28

Identification of Glaucomys sabrinus (skin)

- Furred flap of skin stretches between wrist and ankle along body
- Hairs of underside slate at base
- Grey cheeks
- Long, dense fur

29

Glaucomys volans

Southern flying squirrel
Common

- Greater reliance on nuts and less on fungi than G. sabrinus
- Stores nuts for consumption during winter
- Lives mainly in deciduous forests of oak-hickory or beech-maple

30

Identification of Glaucomys volans (skull)

- GL 7mm
- Two internal divisions of auditory bullae visible externally
- Infraorbital foramen not visible in ventral view & anterior to first well-formed cheek tooth

31

Identification of Glaucomys volans (skin)

- Furred flap of skin stretches between wrist and ankle along body
- Hairs of underside white throughout
- White cheeks
- Fur short and smooth

32

Marmota monax

Woodchuck (groundhog)
Widespread & common

- Active in early morning & late afternoon
- Makes extensive burrows with several entrances & exits (summer)
- Winter den has single entrance
- Can climb to forage or view surroundings
- Eats mostly green vegetation, some crops
- Occasionally makes sharp whistling noise
- Hibernates for 3-6 months in winter
- Lives in fields and brush @ forest edge; along highways/roadsides

33

Identification of Marmota monax (skull)

- Top of skull almost flat in outline
- Incisor usually white or pale yellow
- Postorbital process @ 90 degree angle to long axis of skull

34

Identification of Marmota monax (skin)

- Claws on middle digits of forefoot long (max. length obviously >50% fleshy portion of digits)
- Large
- Solid colour

35

Sciurus carolinensis

Eastern grey squirrel
Common as dirt (most familiar mammal in E. N. America)

- Mainly arboreal but will spend quite a bit of time on ground esp. in fall/winter
- Eats nuts, acorns, buds, flowers, fungi, fruit, seeds; occasionally insects/small birds
- Caches nuts & acorns for winter; buried individually and later located by scent
- Nests of leaves, twigs, etc. on branches or inside hollow trees
- Solitary in summer, may group in winter
- Active year-round

36

Identification of Sciurus carolinensis (skull)

- GL >50mm
- Auditory bullae have two septa that may or may not be externally visible
- Infraorbital foramen not visible in ventral view & anterior to first well-formed cheek tooth

37

Identification of Sciurus carolinensis (skin)

- Total length >375mm
- No ear tufts, black side stripe
- Claws on middle digits of forefoot not elongated

38

Tamias striatus

Eastern chipmunk
Common, abundant

- Usually calls from raised vantage point
- Climbs well
- Will forage in trees or on the ground
- Eats a variety of seeds, fruit, fungi, animals
- Elaborate burrow systems; up to 30m of tunnels, multiple entrances
- Gathers and stores large quantities of food in burrow in fall
- May hibernate in winter depending on latitude
- Lives in deciduous forest, forest edge, gardens, suburban areas

39

Identification of Tamias striatus (skull)

- Infraorbital foramen visible in ventral view
- Infraorbital foramen positioned anterior and lateral of first well-formed cheek tooth

40

Identification of Tamias striatus (skin)

- Alternating light and dark stripes on back (5)

41

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus

Red squirrel
Widespread, common

- Very vocal; may repeat sharp alarm bark for upwards of an hour
- Active year-round
- Feeds mainly on pine seeds; also nuts, fungi, fruit, tree sap, young birds, eggs
- Hordes pine cones in large piles
- Prefers to nest in tree cavities; also branches, underground
- Solitary
- Lives in coniferous forests, mixed forests, orchards, parks

42

Identification of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (skull)

- Auditory bullae have 3 septa visible externally
- Greatest length of skull 40mm - 50mm
- Infraorbital foramen not visible in ventral view & positioned anterior to first well-formed cheek tooth

43

Identification of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (skin)

- Red in colour
- Black ear tufts in winter only
- Black stripe separating back from light underside in summer only
- Total length <375mm
- Claws on middle digits of forefoot not elongated

44

Castor canadensis

American beaver
Widespread, common/abundant
Populations once exploited for fur recovered

- Semiaquatic
- Swims with eyes & nose exposed; body and tail usually below water
- Warning slaps on water with tail
- Fells trees & builds dams to store wood and keep water levels high enough in winter to maintain open water below ice
- Mainly crepuscular & nocturnal
- Active year-round
- Can remain under water for 15 min
- Eats roots and green vegetation in summer; bark in winter
- Will burrow along banks in rivers
- Family groups: monogamous pair, yearlings, young from previous year
- Marks territory with anal & castor glands
- Lives in swamps, lakes, rivers, streams in wooded areas; ponds in tundra

45

Identification of Castor canadensis (skull)

- Ear opening at the end of an upward curving tube
- Greatest length >115mm

46

Identification of Castor canadensis (skin)

- Tail naked, scaly & paddle-shaped
- Width of tail >25% length
- Total length >650mm

47

Identification of Cricetidae (skull)

- Occlusal surface of cheek teeth have whitish enamel loops surrounding patches of dentine; outer margins have zig-zag appearance (1 exception)
- Infraorbital foramen narrower at bottom; often V-shaped; faces forward or laterally
- Upper incisors can be plain or grooved
- Postorbital process absent

48

Identification of Cricetidae (skin)

- Tail never bushy
- Length of longest tail hairs less than width of tail vertebrae; less than 10mm

49

Microtus pennsylvanicus

Meadow vole
Abundant, widespread

- Active night & day
- Swims well but cannot climb
- Frequently seen dashing across roads; forms networks of runways through grass
- Eats green plant material, bark, roots, tubers
- Females solitary & territorial in summer; shared nests in winter
- Males move freely year-round
- Nest aboveground under clumps of grass
- Live in damp meadows, roadsides, orchards, anywhere with thick cover of grass

50

Identification of Microtus pennsylvanicus (skull)

- Three re-entrant angles on either side of posterior upper cheek tooth
- Posterior border of palate supported at midline (perforated)
- No longitudinal groove on front lateral surface of upper incisor
- GL <35mm

51

Microtus pinetorum

Woodland vole
Locally common/abundant

- Mostly lives subterranean
- Makes burrows under leaf litter and in shallow soil
- Eats roots year-round; summer grass stems; fall fruits; winter bark
- Lives in small family groups
- Monogamous
- Lives in deciduous forests with thick leaf litter or grassy patches in woodlands/orchards; dense brush
- Favours sandy soils

52

Identification of Microtus pinetorum (skull)

- Two re-entrant angles on either side of posterior upper cheek tooth
- Posterior border of palate supported at midline (perforated)
- No longitudinal groove on front lateral surface of upper incisor
- GL <35mm

53

Identification of Microtus pennsylvanicus (skin)

- Tail length <50% head+body length
- Pinnae mostly hidden by fur
- Back dark brown, sides brown/grey-brown, underside grey-white
- Thick, coarse fur
- Tail relatively long and lightly haired

54

Identification of Microtus pinetorum (skin)

- Fur has reddish tint on back and sides
- Short, dense, mole-like fur
- Tail very short and nearly naked

55

Myodes gapperi

Southern red-backed vole
Widespread & common

- Mainly diurnal in winter, mainly nocturnal in summer
- Does not construct underground burrow system but travels under leaf litter & fallen logs
- Eats fungi, seeds, nuts, berries, lichen; some arthropods
- Globular nests in burrows or under logs
- Lives in damp forests, mountain meadows, clear-cuts and bogs

56

Identification of Myodes gapperi (skull)

- Posterior border of palate shelf-like & not supported at the midline (no perforations)
- No longitudinal groove on front lateral surface of upper incisor
- GL <35mm

57

Identification of Myodes gapperi (skin)

- Reddish-brown head & back; greyish-brown sides; distinctive stripe
- Tail bicoloured, nearly naked
- Tail has small tuft at tip
- Ears conspicuous

58

Peromyscus maniculatus

American deer mouse
Adundant & widespread

- Mainly terrestrial, but some climb well
- Eats seeds, fruit, insects, subterranean fungi, etc.
- Stores excess food in caches
- Solitary in summer, may huddle in winter in the north
- Occupies all habitat types

59

Identification of Peromyscus maniculatus (skull)

Indistinguishable from P. leucopus

- Cheek teeth have two longitudinal rows of cusps at midtooth
- Cheek teeth have low rounded cusps; outer margins have no zigzag appearance

60

Identification of Peromyscus maniculatus (skin)

- Pure white chin patch 50% head+body length

61

Peromyscus leucopus

White-footed mouse
Abundant & widespread

- Mainly terrestrial but climbs and swims well
- Eats insects, seeds, nuts, fruit & green veg
- Stores food under logs or near nest sites
- Will often live in homes in wooded areas
- Lives in deciduous and mixed forest, hedgerows, bushy areas, croplands, semidesert

62

Identification of Peromyscus leucopus (skull)

Indistinguishable from P. maniculatus

- Cheek teeth have two longitudinal rows of cusps at midtooth
- Cheek teeth have low rounded cusps; outer margins have no zigzag appearance

63

Identification of Peromyscus leucopus (skin)

- Pure white chin patch extends >1cm from mouth
- Tail lightly haired, no tuft @ tip
- Back clearly two-toned
- Fur smooth and slightly shiny
- Underside fur grey @ base (1/4) & white @ tip (3/4); appears pure white in living

64

Ondatra zibethicus

Common muskrat
Common & widespread

- Semiaquatic; swims well
- Top of head, upper back & sometimes tail visible when swimming
- Slaps water when alarmed
- Mainly nocturnal; also active on overcast or rainy days
- Eats cattail and other aquatic plants
- Can close lips behind incisors to harvest food underwater without taking in water
- Makes a lodge or house out of cattail/sedges in shallow water
- Accesses lodge via underwater tunnels
- May make nest in bank burrow
- Males have scent glands on either side of penis; mark glands

65

Identification of Ondatra zibethicus (skull)

- Greatest length of skull >35mm
- Cheek teeth have series of white enamel loops surrounding patches of dentine; outer margins have zigzag appearance

66

Identification of Odontra zibethicus (skin)

- Hind feet webbed
- Tail laterally compressed & naked
- Total length greater than 450mm

67

Synaptomys cooperi

Southern bog lemming
Common but patchily distributed

- Mainly nocturnal but sometimes active by day
- Makes runways through grass or may travel through mole tunnels
- Eats mostly grasses and sedges; also fungi, berries, moss
- Live in colonies of 3-30 individuals
- Usually make nests in underground burrows
- Lives in various places but usually near green grass or sedge

68

Identification of Synaptomys cooperi (skull)

- Shallow longitudinal groove on front lateral surface of upper incisor
- Greatest length of skull <35mm

69

Identification of Synaptomys cooperi (skin)

- Fur grizzled brown to black along sides
- Fur somewhat shaggy
- Many dorsal hairs >10mm
- Incisors have longitudinal groove
- Tail similar in length to hind foot

70

Identification of Dipodidae (skull)

- Infraorbital foramen large & faces forward; oval-shaped
- Pin-sized opening located directly below infraorbital foramen
- Upper incisors have single longitudinal groove on anterior surface

71

Identification of Dipodidae (skin)

- Hind feet large; about 2.5x forefeet
- Tail round, scaly
- Tail longer than head+body
- Total length <260mm

72

Napeozapus insignis

Woodland jumping mouse
Uncommon to locally common

- Mainly nocturnal, sometimes come out in overcast weather
- May stay motionless when encountered
- Can leap up to 3m if startled
- Eats seeds, berries, subterranean fungi, insects, insect larvae
- Hibernates for 6-8 months (Oct-May)
- Weight just before hibernation 150% spring weight

73

Identification of Napeozapus insignis (skull)

- Three well-formed upper cheek teeth

74

Identification of Napeozapus insignis (skin)

- Last 5mm or so of tail white
- Sides & cheeks yellow-orange or reddish-brown
- Back and head dark brown
- Underside pure white
- Hind feet very long and narrow

75

Zapus hudsonius

Meadow jumping mouse
Common

- Mainly nocturnal
- Swims well both above and below water
- May cross bodies of open water
- Can leap up to 1m, but usually moves in short hops or crawls
- Eats grass, seeds, fruit, fungi and insects (esp. moth larvae)
- Hibernates for 6-8 months (Oct-May) in southern part of range, up to 10 months in northern part of range
- Weight before hibernation ~150% spring
- Hibernates in nests of grass & leaves, usually 0.5m below ground
- Lives in grassy or weedy fields (both dry and wet), forest clearings, along streams/bogs/forest edge
- Favours areas with dense herbaceous vegetation

76

Identification of Zapus hudsonius (skull)

- Four upper cheek teeth
- First upper cheek tooth small and peg-like

77

Identification of Zapus hudsonius (skin)

- Tail tip dark and similar in colour to proximal portion
- Sides olive brown to yellowish brown
- Underside white or cream
- Back and top of head dark brown
- Tail very long and narrow

78

Erethizon dorsatum

North American porcupine
Common & widespread

- Mainly nocturnal, sometimes seen along roadsides during the day
- Active year-round
- Eats tree buds in spring, tree leaves & herbaceous plants in summer; acorns, beechnuts, apples, leaves in fall; inner bark of trees & conifer needles in winter
- Craves salt and will chew plywood, stalk roadsides
- Females and young den in winter
- Males may den or spend time in trees year-round
- When attacked, flicks tail to drive short, thin quills into attacker
- Quills are not thrown
- Lives in deciduous and coniferous forests

79

Identification of Erethizon dorsatum (skull)

- Infraorbital foramen as large or larger than foramen magnum
- Skull large; total length 95mm - 115mm

80

Identification of Erethizon dorsatum (skin)

- Some hairs modified into sharp-pointed yellowish quills
- Quills on back and shoulders concealed by long guard hairs (can be blackish or yellowish)
- Tail short and thick

81

Mus musculus

House mouse
Introduced
Common and widespread
Origin of the white lab mouse

- Nocturnal
- Mainly terrestrial, but climbs well
- Eats grains, seeds, insects as well as things left by humans
- Nests in underground burrows in fields; also in buildings
- Lives in agricultural areas, roadsides, buildings in rural/urban areas

82

Identification of Mus musculus (skull)

- Greatest length of skull <25mm
- Tip of upper incisor distinctly notched in lateral view

83

Identification of Mus musculus (skin)

- Total length <200mm
- Tips of most hairs of underside grey, tan, brown

84

Identification of Muridae (skull)

- Cheek teeth have three longitudinal rows of cusps at midtooth
- Cheek teeth have low, rounded cusps, outer margins w/ zigzag appearance
- Infraorbital foramen always narrower at bottom. often V-shaped
- No pin-sized opening below infraorbital foramen

85

Identification of Muridae (skin)

- Tail naked or furred; longer than hind foot
- Length of longest hairs generally less than width of tail vertebrae; always less than 10mm
- Tips of most hairs of underside grey, tan, brown

86

Rattus norvegicus

Norway rat
Introduced
Abundant
Used in labs

- North America's most serious pest
- Mainly nocturnal
- Terrestrial but can climb and swim well
- Eats grain, fruit, garbage - anything available
- Has been known to kill chickens
- Lives in colonies with one male and several females + young
- Lives in complex burrow system
- Lives in urban areas, grain fields, salt marshes
- Favours sewer and wet areas in cities

87

Canidae

Family within Caniformia
Dogs, wolves, coyotes (4 sp.)

88

Felidae

Family within Feliformia
Cats (2 sp.)

89

Mephitidae

Family within Caniformia
Skunks (1 sp.)

90

Mustelidae

Family within Caniformia
Otters, weasels, badgers (8 sp.)

91

Procyonidae

Family within Caniformia
Raccoons (1 sp.)

92

Ursidae

Family within Caniformia
Bears (1 sp.)

93

Identification of Canidae (skull)

- Posterior border of palate even with last tooth or slightly behind
- Seven lower cheek teeth
- Six upper cheek teeth
- Not all cheek teeth blade-like

94

Identification of Canidae (skin)

- Body dog-like
- Claws straight & somewhat blunt
- Claws not retractile
- Scent gland present on back at dorsal base of tail
- Tail long and bushy; greater than 200mm

95

Canis latrans

Coyote
Common & widespread

- Highly adaptable
- Most active at dusk/dawn in east; nocturnal or diurnal in west
- Usually runs with tail downward
- Eats a variety of foods including small mammals, birds, snakes, insects, fruit, berries, veggies
- Usually feeds on larger prey (i.e. deer) as carrion, but may hunt cooperatively in groups
- May travel alone or in pairs
- Packs of 3-7 consists of a mated pair and offspring of various ages
- Larger packs are unstable associations of nonbreeding animals
- Packs will defend territories of 10-24 km^2
- Mark boundaries of territory with urine
- Most commonly found in mixed habitats, less common in large areas of unbroken forest

96

Identification of Canis latrans (skull)

- Greatest length of skull <225mm
- Base of postorbital processes smooth or convex with no paired depressions

97

Identification of Canis latrans (skin)

- Total length 1,075 - 1,350 mm
- Hind foot <33% total length
- Long legs
- Large ears
- Long, narrow muzzle
- Legs and muzzle rusty in colour
- Body colour varies from greyish to tawny
- Tail bushy and usually tipped black

98

Canis lycaon

Eastern timber wolf
Exact numbers unknown

- Mainly active at dawn/dusk, but sometimes day
- Eats mostly large mammals: moose, white-tailed deer, elk, caribou, sheep; sometimes beaver and showshoe hare
- Most social of the canids: lives in packs of 2-15 (avg. 6)
- Packs composed of family members
- Packs have well-defined social hierarchy, with male/female dominating all other males/females in group
- Home range of 146-2600 km^2
- Favours heavily forested areas

99

Identification of Canis lycaon (skull)

- Greatest length of skull >225mm
- Base of postorbital processes smooth or convex with no paired depressions

100

Identification of Canis lycaon (skin)

- Total length >1,350 mm
- Hind foor >225 mm
- Width of nosepad >25 mm
- Tail length <33% total length
- Muzzle tapered but not as long as coyote
- Back grey-brown to reddish-brown
- Lower sides and legs tawny
- Chest and underside greyish white
- Tail with black tip

101

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Grey Fox
Common in US
Hunted and trapped for fur in range

- Mainly nocturnal/crepuscular
- Usually seen on the ground but is capable of climbing trees to feed or escape predators
- More omnivorous than other foxes
- Feeds mostly on small mammals in winter and may eat lots of insects in summer
- Range 2-5 km^2
- Seen alone or pairs
- Lives in deciduous forest and oldfields (east)
- Brush areas and riparian forest (west)

102

Identification of Urocyon cinereoargenteus (skull)

- Temporal ridges form U shape when viewed from above
- Lower portion of mandible notched at posterior end

103

Identification of Urocyon cinereoargenteus (skin)

- Body a mixture of grey & black
- Sides rust-orange
- Underside & throat white
- Feet not black
- Tail has black tip and top
- Tail length >33% total length
- Total length <1,075 mm
- Relatively short legs

104

Vulpes vulpes

Red fox
Common - has expanded in range due to extirpation of wolves, agriculture
Used to be hunted extensively for fur/sport
One of main vectors for rabies

- Mainly nocturnal/crepuscular
- Feeds on small rodents, rabbits, birds, insects, fruit, berries
- Will raid garbages and feed on carrion
- Hearing sensitive to low-frequency rustling/gnawing sounds from prey
- Hunts by stalking close, leaping up and landing on and pinning prey w/ forefeet
- Adults form long-term pair bonds
- Usually seen alone since they forage alone
- Territory 0.6-6 km^2
- Young born in underground dens w/ multiple entrances
- Young males disperse widely but females may stay for some time with parents
- Favours mixed habitat w/ brushland & fields

105

Identification of Vulpes vulpes (skull)

- Temporal ridges form narrow V shape when viewed from above
- Lower part of mandible not notched at posterior end

106

Identification of Vulpes vulpes (skin)

- Back usually reddish, but occasionally brownish or black
- Feet black
- Bushy tail tipped with white (all colour phases)
- Long legs
- "Silver phase" blackish with various amounts of silvery frosting
- "Cross phase" grey or orange-brown with dark cross on shoulders
- Alternate phases mainly in Canada/Alaska

107

Identification of Felidae (skull)

- Three or four upper cheek teeth
- Posterior upper cheek tooth small and oriented with long axis perpendicular to long axis of adjacent tooth
- Three lower cheek teeth present
- All cheek teeth blade-like
- Rostrum short

108

Identification of Felidae (skin)

- Body cat-like
- Claws curved & sharp
- Claws retractile
- Lack scent gland at dorsal base of tail
- Tail short and not bushy

109

Lynx canadensis

Canada lynx
Fairly common in northern regions, southern range reduced due to overexploitation

- Most active at dawn/dusk
- Hunts by stalking close and bouncing onto prey in 1-2 bounds
- Feeds mainly on snowshoe hares
- Populations follow a cyclical pattern with highs every 10 years
- Mainly solitary
- Lives mainly in coniferous forests
- Favours areas of dense vegetation, swamps, and rocks

110

Identification of Lynx canadensis (skull)

- Max. width of presphenoid 6mm or more
- Crest on occipital bone extends more than 3mm posterior to foramen magnum

111

Identification of Lynx canadensis (skin)

- Ears have tuft of black hairs
- Black marking at tip of tail continuous around tail
- Hind foot length greater than 200mm
- Fur on back is greyish and not spotted

112

Lynx rufus

Bobcat
Common in south & west range; largely extirpated in midwest

- Mainly nocturnal, but can be active at any time of day
- Swims well
- Will climb trees to avoid predators
- Travels and hunts on the ground
- Eats mainly rabbits and rodents, but will prey on other things
- Sneaks up on prey then pounces and strikes
- Mainly solitary
- Highly variable habitats

113

Identification of Lynx rufus (skull)

- Max. width of presphenoid <6mm
- Crest on occipital bone less than 3mm posterior to foramen magnum in ventral view

114

Identification of Lynx rufus (skin)

- Ear tufts absent or small
- Only dorsal surface of tail with black mark
- Hind foot <200mm

115

Mephitis mephitis

Striped skunk
Common to abundant

- Mainly nocturnal
- Rummages through leaf litter for food
- Growls, purrs, hissed in warning
- Stamps feet before spraying
- Eats mainly insects; also small mammals, birds, bird eggs, fruit, carrion, plant material
- Usually solitary; but may share winter dens or congregate at feeding areas
- Fattens up in the fall and spends a lot of winter in den
- Does not hibernate
- Usually not far from water

116

Identification of Mephitis mephitis (skull)

- Posterior border of palate approx. even with posterior border of last upper tooth
- Anterior border of last upper tooth straight
- Four upper cheek teeth on each side

117

Identification of Mephitis mephitis (skin)

- Front claws not greatly enlarged compared to rear claws
- Max. 2 broad white stripes on back
- Top of head & neck white

118

Identification of Mustelidae (skull)

- Four or five upper cheek teeth
- Posterior upper cheek teeth not tiny relative to adjacent teeth
- Five or more lower cheek teeth on each side
- Not all cheek teeth blade-like

119

Identification of Mustelidae (skin)

- Tail lacks multiple black rings
- No black facial mask
- Colour never uniform black above & below
- Tail obvious

120

Lontra canadensis

Northern river otter
Extirpated from much of former US range
Suffers from water pollution & habitat loss
Has been protected and reintroduced successfully in 7 US states & Alberta

- Semiaquatic; strong swimmer
- Swims with head exposed and body underwater
- Mainly crepuscular, but can be active at all times of day
- May travel long distances on land when dispersing or in search of open water
- Mainly eats fish, frogs, crayfish, molluscs
- Dens in bank burrows, under roots/brush; entrances either above or below water
- Males usually solitary; may form bachelor groups
- Groups usually consist of female and young
- Mating takes place soon after young are born; implantation delayed 8-9 months
- Lives in all water areas

121

Identification of Lontra canadensis (skull)

- Five lower cheek teeth
- Five upper cheek teeth
- Large infraorbital foramen; ~8mm L ~5mm W
- Base of postorbital processes smooth or convex with no paired depressions

122

Identification of Lontra canadensis (skin)

- Feet fully webbed
- Tail unusually thick and muscular at base; strongly tapered towards tip
- Total length >700mm
- Short legged
- Upper parts dark brown, underside silvery

123

Martes americana

American marten

- Active all day
- Seldom seen
- Agile & semiarboreal
- Swims well
- Usually hunts on the ground
- May travel under snow in winter
- Diet varies depending on food availability and season
- Sleeps on branches or in hollow logs
- May den under snow in winter
- Does not hibernate
- Lives in mature coniferous or mixed forests

124

Identification of Martes americana (skull)

- Five upper cheek teeth
- Six lower cheek teeth
- No exposed rootlet on outer side of fourth upper cheek tooth
- Greatest length of skull 95 mm or less
- Infraorbital foramen small to medium (less than 6mm L x 4mm W)

125

Identification of Martes americana (skin)

- Body yellowish brown to dark brown
- Head paler than back
- Chin brown
- Legs/feet/tail darker than back
- Large orange/buff/cream patch covering throat and extending onto chest
- Feet relatively large
- Total length 660mm or less
- Ears more than 25mm in height
- Ears have light-coloured border

126

Martes americana

American marten

- Active all day
- Seldom seen
- Agile & semiarboreal
- Swims well
- Usually hunts on the ground
- May travel under snow in winter
- Diet varies depending on food availability and season
- Sleeps on branches or in hollow logs
- May den under snow in winter
- Does not hibernate
- Lives in mature coniferous or mixed forests

127

Identification of Martes americana (skull)

- Five upper cheek teeth
- Six lower cheek teeth
- No exposed rootlet on outer side of fourth upper cheek tooth
- Greatest length of skull 95 mm or less
- Infraorbital foramen small to medium (less than 6mm L x 4mm W)

128

Identification of Martes pennanti (skin)

- Large, bushy-tailed
- Body dark brown to black
- Long guard hairs
- Head/neck/shoulders grizzled yellow-brown or greyish-yellow
- Legs/feet/tail blackish
- No large buff/cream patch but small patches may occur on throat/chest
- Total length usually much greater than 660mm
- Ears more than 25mm high w/ light-coloured border

129

Martes americana

American marten

- Active all day
- Seldom seen
- Agile & semiarboreal
- Swims well
- Usually hunts on the ground
- May travel under snow in winter
- Diet varies depending on food availability and season
- Sleeps on branches or in hollow logs
- May den under snow in winter
- Does not hibernate
- Lives in mature coniferous or mixed forests

130

Identification of Mustela erminea (skull)

- Postorbital process blunt and weakly developed
- Greatest width of skull <24mm M
- Greatest length of skull 35mm - 55mm
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

131

Identification of Mustela erminea (skin)

- Tail length <450mm

132

Mustela frenata

Long-tailed weasel
Widespread but uncommon/rare

- Active day or night
- Gallops with back arched and tail held up
- Hunts for prey on ground, in trees, and in underground burrows
- Swims well
- Feeds on small to medium mammals, birds (eggs), snakes, insects, carrion
- Breeding in summer with young born following spring
- Lives in forests, meadows, fields
- Favours open areas w/ dense vegetation, near water

133

Identification of Mustela frenata (skull)

- Postorbital process pointed
- Greatest width of skull >20mm F; >24mm M
- Greatest length of skull 35 - 55 mm
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

134

Identification of Mustela frenata (skin)

- Largest weasel in North America
- Tail length >44% heady+body length
- Colour highly variable overall
- Summer: brown above
- Winter: white to yellowish (north only)
- Terminal portion of tail black
- Ventral fur mostly white to yellowish-white

135

Mustela nivalis

Least weasel
Uncommon-rare, can be locally abundant

- Alternates periods of activity and rest throughout the day and night
- When awake, frantically darts in and out of runways & burrows, pausing momentarily to stand up and look around
- Feeds on voles and mice; also birds & eggs, insects, shrews, moles
- Narrow body allows it to pursue prey in small burrows
- Eats almost half its weight daily
- Caches extra prey in chambers and burrows
- Male home ranges include the ranges of several females
- Strong-smelling musk used to mark territory
- Lives in open areas

136

Identification of Mustela erminea (skull)

- Postorbital process blunt and weakly developed
- Greatest width of skull <24mm M
- Greatest length of skull 35mm - 55mm
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

137

Identification of Mustela erminea (skin)

- Tail length <450mm

138

Mustela frenata

Long-tailed weasel
Widespread but uncommon/rare

- Active day or night
- Gallops with back arched and tail held up
- Hunts for prey on ground, in trees, and in underground burrows
- Swims well
- Feeds on small to medium mammals, birds (eggs), snakes, insects, carrion
- Breeding in summer with young born following spring
- Lives in forests, meadows, fields
- Favours open areas w/ dense vegetation, near water

139

Identification of Mustela frenata (skull)

- Postorbital process pointed
- Greatest width of skull >20mm F; >24mm M
- Greatest length of skull 35 - 55 mm
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

140

Identification of Mustela frenata (skin)

- Largest weasel in North America
- Tail length >44% heady+body length
- Colour highly variable overall
- Summer: brown above
- Winter: white to yellowish (north only)
- Terminal portion of tail black
- Ventral fur mostly white to yellowish-white

141

Mustela nivalis

Least weasel
Uncommon-rare, can be locally abundant

- Alternates periods of activity and rest throughout the day and night
- When awake, frantically darts in and out of runways & burrows, pausing momentarily to stand up and look around
- Feeds on voles and mice; also birds & eggs, insects, shrews, moles
- Narrow body allows it to pursue prey in small burrows
- Eats almost half its weight daily
- Caches extra prey in chambers and burrows
- Male home ranges include the ranges of several females
- Strong-smelling musk used to mark territory
- Lives in open areas

142

Identification of Mustela nivalis (skull)

- Greatest length of skull 35mm or less
- Basically, really small
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

143

Identification of Mustela nivalis (skin)

- Small
- Terminal portion of tail not obviously black
- Summer: back brown; forefeet often white (sometimes brown); hind feet often brown (sometimes white)
- Winter: entirely white or off-white
- Ventral fur mostly white or yellowish white

144

Neovison vison

American mink
Widespread, common in suitable areas

- Mainly nocturnal/crepuscular
- Excellent swimmers
- Mainly aquatic prey summer, terrestrial winter
- Eats small to medium mammals, crayfish, frogs, snakes, birds
- Dens near water in tree roots, muskrat houses, burrows in banks
- May use several different dens
- Males occupy larger range than females
- Lives in wooded areas along bodies of water

145

Identification of Neovison vison (skull)

- Greatest length of skull >55mm
- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Hourglass-shaped chewing surface on last upper cheek tooth

146

Identification of Neovison vison (skin)

- Feet partly webbed
- Long low body
- Male larger than female
- Back & underside dark brown
- Small white patches on chin, sometimes thriat & chest
- Tail blackish at tip

147

Taxidea taxus

American badger
Locally common to rare
Endangered in Ontario

- Mainly nocturnal
- Good digger
- Uses burrows for resting, raising young, food storage
- Digs up & feeds on rodents; also invertebrates, snakes, carrion
- May stay in burrow during bad weather
- Will become torpid but never hibernates
- Solitary except when breeding
- Males hold large territories, may mate with multiple females
- Mate in summer-fall; implantation delayed until spring

148

Identification of Taxidea taxus (skull)

- Last upper cheek tooth triangular in outline
- Skull triangular in dorsal view
- Four upper cheek teeth

149

Identification of Taxidea taxus (skin)

- Front claws massive
- Single white stripe down midline from snout to shoulders
- Back grizzled yellow-grey, underside yellow buff
- White face with black markings
- Stocky and short-legged

150

Procyon lotor

Northern raccoon
Abundant
Hunted in some areas for sport
Can carry rabies and other parasites

- Mainly nocturnal
- Moves with bouncing gait; back arched and head low
- Sleeps by day on branch or in tree hollow; sometimes burrow/building
- Eats a wide variety of food
- May dabble in water for prey
- Manipulates items with front paws
- May stay in den for several days during bad weather; never hibernates
- Usually solitary but groups may share den
- Young stay with mom for 6-9 months
- Adult females remain in same area, males travel in search of mates

151

Identification of Procyon lotor (skull)

- Posterior border of palate well behind last upper tooth
- Six lower cheek teeth
- Six upper cheek teeth

152

Identification of Procyon lotor (skin)

- Tail has multiple dark rings
- Black facial mask
- White sides of muzzle and above eyes
- Fur long and grizzled

153

Ursus americanus

Black bear
Range very reduced in east
Often hunted, but are shy and are seldom dangerous

- Usually active by day in wild areas; may be nocturnal near human populations
- Walk with shuffling gait; can gallop quickly
- Climb well
- Eat mainly nuts, berries, and vegetation; also insects, birds eggs, young mammals, carrion
- Mostly solitary; may form social hierarchy at rich feeding area
- Male occupies large range that encompasses ranges of many females
- Dormant for up to 7 months in northern part of range
- Lives in forests and swamps in east
- Lives in mountains, tundra, rainforest west

154

Identification of Ursus americanus (skull)

- Last upper cheek tooth 1.5x long as wide
- Long axis of last upper cheek tooth parallels long axis of skull
- Skull massive

155

Identification of Ursus americanus (skin)

- Body massive and not elongate
- Uniform black colour both above and below; various colour forms may arise
- Always buff brown muzzle
- Possible white throat patch
- Total length much greater than 800mm
- Tail inconspicuous