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Flashcards in Lab Quiz 2 Deck (50):
1

Monotremata

Order
- Reptilian features inc. sprawled limbs and egg-laying
- Teeth absent in all adults; may form tooth buds in juvenile platypuses but these disappear soon after birth
- Instead, platypuses have horny plates that are continually growing
- Lacrimal and frontal bones absent
- Jugals reduced or absent, but zygomatic processes of maxilla and squamosal meet to form complete zygomatic arch
- Jaws covered with rubbery, hairless skin
- Large claws on each digit
- Large, hollow spur on the ankle of males (and some female echidnas); venom-secreting gland at base in platypuses
- No nipples on the mammary glands
- Penis bifurcates at the tip and is attached to the ventral wall of the cloaca
- Females have 10 X chromosomes, males have 5 X & 5 Y
- Auditory bullae are absent
- Prominent epipubic bones

2

Epipubic Bones

Paired bones that project anteriorly from the pelvic girdle into the abdominal body

3

Identification of Echidnas

Skulls may resemble those of small anteaters or pangolins (which are also toothless and cone shaped)

- Echidnas have a more elevated braincase
- Premaxillae of Tachyglossus are bents lightly upward
- Anteaters have well-developed lacrimal bones (absent in echidnas and pangolins)
- Pangolin skulls tend to be more robust and lack an angular process

4

Metatheria

Infraclass, contains Superorders:
- Ameridelphia
- Australidelphia
(Total of 7 Orders)

Characteristics:
- Marsupium in 2/3 of living species
- Always more upper than lower incisors (except wombats, Vombatidae - Diprodontia)
- Primitive formula is 3 premolars and 4 molars (reverse of placentals)
- Total number of teeth often exceeds 44
- Diprotodont teeth in two orders
- Canines and first premolars frequently incisiform
- Angular process inflected (projects medially)
- Jugal contributes to mandibular fossa in all marsupials except genus Tarsipes
- Most are plantigrade, some digitigrade
- Hallux lacks a claw in all marsupials
- Simple yolk sac placenta in most, chorioallantoic in Peramelemorphia
- Epipubic bones present in males and females, vestigeal in marsupial moles and Tasmanian wolf
- Two separate uteri with two vaginal canals (temp. median birth canal during childbirth)
- Penis often bifurcate, no baculum; scrotum anterior to penis
- Separate urogenital and digestive openings in most species (exception is Microbiotheria)

5

Diprotodont

Condition where the lower jaw is shortened and the first pair of lower incisors are very enlarged and elongated

6

Polyprotodont

Non-diprotodont, or normal tooth condition

7

Syndactyly

Condition where two toes are fused so the skeletal elements of both are encased within one skin sheath
- Two claws will project from the end of this digit

8

Didactyly

Condition with no fused digits, opposite of syndactylous

9

Ameridelphia

Superorder within Metatheria, contains:
- Didelphimorphia
- Paucituberculata

Marsupials from the New World

10

Australidelphia

Superorder within Metatheria, contains:
- Dasyuromorphia
- Notoryctrmorphia
- Peramelemorphia
- Diprotodontia
- Microbiotheria

11

Didelphimorphia

Order within Ameridelphia
Opossums
Neotropical region, except Didelphis virginiana, which ranges into the Nearctis

Characteristics
- Most probably omnivorous
- Terrestrial and arboreal, one semiaquatic, some semifossorial
- Marsupium more absent than present

12

Identification of Didelphimorphia

- Incisors are 5/4, small, peg-like
- Polyprotodont
- Canines are well-developed
- Pentadactyl and no syndactylous digits
- Well developed hallux is clawless and more or less opposable
- Tail prehensile to semi-prehensile
- Frequently have a naked, rat-like tail

May be confused with Microbiotheria or Peramelemorphia (both have five upper incisors)
- Microbiotheria has inflated auditory bullae
- Peramelemorphia has three lower incisors

13

Didelphis virginiana

Appearance
- Long-haired, scruffy; naked nose and ears
- Rat-like tail is furred at base, then black and naked, then has long white tip
- Five toes on each foot, opposable hallux
- Incisors 5/4

Similar species
- Norway rat is much smaller and has shorter fur, with no fur on base of tail

Habits
- Nocturnal, though sometimes active by day in winter
- Climbs well, uses prehensile tail for balance
- May "play dead" if provoked
- Omnivorous and will eat almost anything
- Solitary
- Seminomadic; dens in hollow logs, rocks, burrows made by other animals
- Female gives birth to 8-16 2g young that attach to one of 13 nipples for 2 months; 3rd month on mom's back
- May have 2-3 litters per year

Habitat
- Oldfields, forests, agricultural areas, roadsides, suburbs, and urban regions

Status
- Common to abundant
- Frequently roadkill
- Sometimes killed for meat in southern US

Range
- Native from Central America all the way to Southern Ontario
- Introduced widely along the west coast

14

Paucituberculata

Order within Ameridelphia
Caenolestids - flaplips/shrew-opossums
Neotropical region

Characteristics
- Small and shrew-like
- Feed on invertebrates, plants, fungi and seeds

15

Identification of Paucituberculata

- Diprotodont
- Incisors usually 4/3
- External membranous flap on both sides of the upper and lower lips
- Marsupium always absent
- Tail long and haired to tip
- Limbs subequal
- Didactylous
- Can be distinguished from Diprodontia because they have 4 upper incisors
- Can be distinguished from mice and shrews due to clawless hallux and flaps on lips

16

Dasyuromorphia

Order within Australidelphia
Carnivorous/insectivorous marsupials - Tasmanian wolf, Tasmanian devil, numbat
Australian region

Characteristics
- Mostly terrestrial, a few arboreal/semifossorial

17

Identification of Dasyuromorphia

- Polyprotodont
- Incisors 4/3
- Canines well-developed in most
- Didactylous toes
- Hallux clawless if present
- Marsupium, if present, opens to the rear
- Non-prehensile tail
- Can be distinguished from similar eutherians because of 4 upper incisors, inflected angular process, and clawless hallux

18

Notoryctemorphia

Order within Australidelphia
Marsupial moles
Australian region

Characteristics
- Fully fossorial
- Live in sandy deserts
- Feed on insects

19

Identification of Notoryctemorphia

- Dental formula I 3-4/3 : C 1/1 : P 2/2-3 : M 4/4 (T: 40-44)
- Skull conical in shape
- Skin has horny rostral shield
- Claws are very enlarged on third and fourth digits to form spades
- Pinnae and externally visible eyes absent
- Fur silky, pale, iridescent
- Tail short, naked, conical
- Marsupium present
- Vestigial epipubic bones
- Inflected angular process distinguished from eutherians
- Skin unique in having less than 5 digits on forefeet and horny rostral shield (golden moles have small rostral pad but no external tail)

20

Peramelemorphia

Order within Australidelphia
Bandicoots and bilbies
Australian region

Characteristics
- Terrestrial
- Primarily insectivorous
- Vaguely similar to rabbits in size and appearance

21

Identification of Peramelemorphia

- Polyprotodont
- Dental formula I 4-5/3 : C 1/1 : P 3/3 : M 4/4 (T: 46-48)
- Incisors have flattened crowns
- Wide space between canines and last incisor/first premolar
- Syndactylous digits on hind feet
- Elongate rostrum
- Skull conical in shape
- Hindlimbs larger than forelimbs
- Reduced number of digits on pes and manus
- Clavicle rudimentary or absent
- Marsupium always present, opens to rear
- Chorioallantoic placenta, but lacks villi seen in eutherians
- Can be distinguished from eutherians by number of upper incisors and inflected angular process
- Skin can be distinguished from others because of syndactylous digits

22

Diprotodontia

Order within Australidelphia
Kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, possums, wombats, etc.
Australian region

Characteristics
- Vary considerably in size
- Occupy diverse habitats
- Terrestrial, semifossorial, or arboreal

23

Identification of Diprotodontia

- Diprotodont
- Incisors can be 3/2-3; 3/1; 2/1 or 1/1
- Second and third lower incisors minute when present
- Syndactylous second and third digits of hind foot
- Marsupium always present, opens anteriorly or posteriorly
- Can be distinguished from paucituberculatans (who are also diprotodont) by having less than four upper incisors
- Inflected angular process means marsupials

24

Microbiotheria

Order within Australidelphia
Monito del monte (only extant species)
Neotropical region

Characteristics
- Opossum-like in appearance
- Scansorial or semiarboreal
- Lives in dense, humid forest
- Insectivorous or faunivorous

25

Identification of Micriobiotheria

- Polyprotodont
- Incisors 5/4
- Large, inflated auditory bullae
- Didactylous toes
- Opposable hallux
- Marsupium present
- Tail prehensile, equal in length to body, furred all over except ventral strip
- Can be distinguished from opossum skulls due to large auditory bullae
- Can be distinguished from opossum skins due to long furred tail; naked strip distinguishes from small eutherians
- Can be distinguished from diprotodontians due to didactylous digits
- Can be distinguished from rodents because of opossable hallux with no claw

26

Xenarthra

Superorder within Eutheria, contains Orders:
- Cingulata
- Pilosa
Sloths, armadillos, anteaters
Neotropical region except one species ranging into southcentral Nearctic

Characteristics
- Extra (xenarthrous) articular surface between vertebrae, esp. in lumbar region
- Incisors are generally reduced or absent
- Deciduous teeth are absent
- Cheek teeth (when present) lack enamel
- Cheek teeth (when present) have only single, open root
- Limbs specialized for digging or climbing

27

Cingulata

Order within Xenarthra
Armadillos
Neotropical region and one species in Nearctic

Characteristics:
- Terrestrial to fossorial
- Possess a carapace over much of the body, formed by plates of dermal bone that are covered in small, overlapping keratinous scutes
- Armour ranges in protection from full coverage when rolled into a ball to a thin stretch
- Most are only sparsely haired, but some are very hairy
- Most feed exclusively or primarily on insects

28

Identification of Cingulata

- Cheek teeth are cylindrical, homodont, and ever-growing
- No incisors or canines
- Deciduous teeth only in genus Dasypus
- Some species have more than 7 cheek teeth

29

Pilosa

Order within Xenarthra, contains Suborders:
- Vermilingua
- Phyllophaga
Anteaters and Sloths
Neotropical region

30

Vermilingua

Suborder within Pilosa
Anteaters and tamanduas
Neotropical region

Characteristics:
- Feed primarily on ants and termites
- Terrestrial and arboreal
- Tamanduas and pygmy/two-toed anteaters have prehensile tails

31

Identification of Vermilingua

- Edentulate
- Long slender rostrum with small mouth opening
- Long, thin, cylindrical tongue
- Large foreclaws used to tear open and and termite nests
- Can be distinguished from echidnas because they have a less elevated braincase and premaxillae are never bent upward
- Have lacrimal bones, which are in neither echidnas or pangolins

32

Edentulate

No teeth

33

Phyllophaga

Suborder within Pilosa
Sloths
Neotropical region

Characteristics:
- Arboreal
- Long limbs and syndactylous toes
- Large, curved claws for hanging from tree branches
- Have coarse hair that houses algae
- Vegetarian

34

Identification of Phyllophaga

- Incisors and canines absent
- Cheek teeth cylindrical, ever-growing and basically homodont
- Rudimentary tail
- Can have cervical vertebrae numbering more or less than 7
- Two-toed sloths have two claws on forefeet and three on hindfeet; caniniform anterior tooth
- Three-toed sloths have three claws on all four feet; all teeth essentially homodont

35

Afrotheria

Superorder within Eutheria, contains Orders:
- Afrosoricida
- Macroscelidea
- Tubulidentata
- Proboscidea
- Sirenia
- Hyracoidea
Includes elephants, sirenians, hyraxes, golden moles, aardvarks, etc.
Ethiopian region

No morphological support but molecular data strongly supports this as a clade

36

Afrosoricida

Order within Afrotheria, contains Suborders:
- Tenrecomorpha
- Chrysochloridea
Tenrecs, otter shrews, golden moles
Ethiopian region

37

Tenrecomorpha

Suborder within Afrosoricida
Tenrecs and otter shrews
Ethiopian region

Characteristics:
- Insectivorous
- Vary greatly in form and habits
- Shrew- to rabbit-sized
- Can resemble shrews, moles, desmans, or hedgehogs
- Otter shrews are semiquatic

38

Identification of Tenrecomorpha

- First upper premolar is never present
- Molars are 3/3; 4/3, or 2/2
- Upper molars have crowns that are triangular in occlusal view
- Rostrum frequently long and slender
- No auditory bullae or zygomatic arches
- No jugal
- Eyes usually small
- Obvious pinnae
- Can be distinguished from shrews because first upper incisor does not protrude, has no accessory cusp, and is never pigmented

39

Chrysochloridea

Suborder within Afrosoricida
Golden moles
Ethiopian region

Characteristics:
- Diet is mainly invertebrates (termites)
- Live in forests, savannahs and sand dunes
- Closely resemble true moles with the fossorial adaptations of marsupial moles

40

Identification of Chrysochloridea

- Dental formula I 3/3 : C 1/1 : P 3/3 : M 3/3 (T: 40)
- First upper incisor is enlarged
- Crests between cusps of upper molars are V-shaped in occlusal view
- Conical or wedge-shaped skull
- Leathery pad at tip of snout
- Auditory bullae present
- No jugal bone, zygomatic arch made by elongate processes
- Eyes are vestigial and covered in skin and fur
- Can be distinguished from true moles by V-shaped crests between cusps, weak zygomatic arch and four digits on forefeet

41

Macroscelidea

Order within Afrotheria
Elephant shrews/sengis
Ethiopian and Palearctic regions

Characteristics:
- Diurnal insectivores
- Long, slender and highly mobile snout
- Snout has many basal vibrissae
- Large eyes and ears
- Hind limbs slender and elongated
- When alarmed, hop on digitigrade hind feet
- Soft fur
- Long slender tail covered with scales

42

Identification of Macroscelidea

- Hind limbs much longer than forelimbs
- Distal portions of limbs longer than proximal portions
- Fused tibia and fibula
- Dental formula I 1-3/3 : C 1/1 : P 4/4 : M 2/2-3 (T: 36-42)
- Fourth premolar is molariform
- Molars are usually four-cusped
- Upper molars with crests between cusps are V-shaped
- Large perforations in palate
- Complete zygomatic arch
- No complete postorbital bar
- Well-developed auditory bullae
- Can be distinguished from marsupials due to lack of inflected angular process
- Can be distinguished from Scandentia and Primates due to lack of postorbital bar
- Can be distinguished from Chiroptera and Carnivora due to poorly developed canines

43

Tubulidentata

Order within Afrotheria
Aardvark - Orycteropus afer
Ethiopian region

Characteristics:
- Semifossorial
- Somewhat pig-like in appearance
- Digits terminate in structures intermediate between claws and hooves - used to burrow and tear open termite mounds
- Long, extensible tongue

44

Identification of Tubulidentata

- Skull is elongated and conical
- Incisors and canines are absent
- Cheek teeth usually number 5/5
- Cheek teeth are ever-growing, oval/B-shaped, flat-topped, and clumnar
- Cheek teeth lack enamel and are composed of hexagonal prisms of dentine surrounding tubular pulp cavities
- Limbs are digitigrade
- Four digits on manus and five digits on pes
- Snout is elongated and pig-like
- Ears are much longer than wide
- Tail is long and tapers gradually
- Thick skin with sparse bristle-like hairs

45

Proboscidea

Order within Afrotheria
Elephants
Ethiopian and Oriental regions

Characteristics:
- Long, prehensile trunk
- Browsing and herbivorous

46

Identification of Proboscidea

- Incisors are 1/0 and are long, ever-growing tusks of solid dentine; frequently absent in female Asiatic elephants
- Canines absent
- Cheek teeth are hypsodont and lophodont
- Cheek teeth are replaced from the back of the jaw as worn teeth are shed from the front of each tooth row
- Limbs are graviportal and have five digits terminating in a hoof-like structure
- Upper lip and nose are fused to form the trunk, with nostrils at distal end
- Skin is thick and covered in spare, bristle-like hairs

47

Sirenia

Order within Afrotheria
Manatees and dugongs
Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Australian and Ethiopian regions

Characteristics:
- Fully aquatic
- Lack external hindlimbs
- Forelimbs modified to become flippers
- Short but flexible neck
- Mammae are pectoral
- Feed on aquatic vegetation
- Hunted for meat, hides and oil
- Tropical and subtropical

48

Identification of Sirenia

- External nares high on the skull, posterior to anterior margins of the orbits
- Nasal bones rudimentary or absent
- Incisors absent in manatee, 1/0 in dugong
- Canines absent
- Cheek teeth are either replaced by more teeth as in elephants or replaced by horny plates
- Vestigial pelvic limbs, not visible externally
- Pectoral limbs paddle-like, five digits indistinguishable externally
- Tail has horizontally flattened fin (cleft in dugongs)
- Manatees have only six cervical vertebrae
- Ribs are massive
- Horizontal stability enhanced by elongated lungs and horizontal diaphragm
- Eyes are small
- Pinnae absent
- Lips large and highly mobile
- Stiff vibrissae present on upper lip, otherwise body is nearly naked

49

Hyracoidea

Order within Afrotheria
Hyraxes
Ethiopian region mostly, one genus in Palearctic

Characteristics:
- Rabbit-sized, look much like rodents
- Herbivorous
- Unique foot structure grants them a firm grip on rocks and trees in which they live
- Terrestrial species live in colonies

50

Indentification of Hyracoidea

- Adult dental formula I 1/2 : C 0/0 : P4/4 : M 3/3 (T: 34)
- Long, rootless upper incisors are triangular in cross-section and pointed
- Lower incisors are chisel-shaped and usually tricuspid
- Cheek teeth somewhat lophodont
- Wide diastema between anterior and cheek teeth
- Well-developed postorbital process usually forms postorbital bar
- Well-developed interparietal
- Large jugals contribute to mandibular fossa
- Plantigrade
- All four digits on manus are syndactylous except for the terminal phalanges
- Pes has three digits
- Flat, hoof-like nails except for second pedal digit, with grooming nail (claw-like)
- Soles of feet have soft, elestic pads kept moist by numerous glands
- Very short tail
- Can be distinguished from rodents by tringular cross section of upper incisors and presence of two lower incisors