What is the anthropological approach to language concerned with?
The evolution of language, the role of language in culture and society, and linguistic relativity
What is the linguistic approach to language concerned with?
How people use language, structure of sentences, competence versus performance, and traditional focus on syntax
What is the biological approach to language concerned with?
Is there a biological disposition to language, the brain structures involved in language
What is the computational approach to language concerned with?
The development of algorithms, and programs, performance focus, heuristics and semantics
What is the psychological approach to language concerned with?
psycholinguistics, performance focused
What does pragmatics refer to?
How language is used, various forms of expression that vary with social context
What are conversational postulates?
assumptions we make during conversations.
How does the cooperative principle and the maxim of quantity help us understand each other?
speakers and listeners work together to ensure mutual understanding and provide enough information for the given purpose.
What are some cross-cultural studies about language?
Whorfian hypothesis: strucutre of language affects cognition (relativity)
Dani people: perception of color space (universality)
What does the McGurk effect tell us about language?
It tells us about the interplay between auditory and visual speech perception
What is the arcuate fasiculus?
The area connecting Brocas to Wernickes
Explain the phonemic restoration effect
Informs us about the role of context in determining sound. EX: It was found that the *eel was on the axle.
What does it mean to say that human language has high productivity?
Human language has the ability to improvise new combinations of signals to represent new ideas
What do the studies of nonhuman language abilities tell us?
Teach us how best to teach language to those that can't learn easily
Indicate language evolved from a precursor found in other species
Illustrates the ambiguity of our concept of language
What are two theories about how humans evolve language?
Language evolved as a by-product of brain development
Language evolved as a brain specialization
What are some problems with these theories?
People with full-size brains can show severe language deficits and people with impaired intelligence can have normal language skills
How does bilingualism effect the brain at different ages?
bilingual from a young age shows bilateral activity during speech for both languages
after age six, they tend to show only left hemisphere activity.