Working Memory and Executive Function Flashcards Preview

Biological and Cognitive Foundations Final > Working Memory and Executive Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Working Memory and Executive Function Deck (17):

What is memory?

Processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present


What are the three structural features of the mulit-store model for memory?

Sensory memory: holds all incoming info for miliseconds; modality specific

Short term memory: 5-7 items for 15-30 sec

Long term memory: large amount of info for a long time


What is iconic memory?

A type of brief sensory memory that stores visual icons


What is echoic memory?

A type of brief sensory memory. Remembers persistence of sound


What is working memory?

A limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning


How does working memory differ from short term memory?

Short term memory is a single component, whereas working memory consists of multiple components

Short term memory only holds info for a brief period. Working memory manipulates infor that occurs duing complex cognition


What is the phonological loop?

Holds speech-based information. Places importance on verbal rehearsal


What is the phonological similarity effect and the word-length effect?

The phonological similarity effect is when letters or words that sound similar get confused

The word length effect is when the memory span lowers for words that take a long time to say


What are the 2 components of the phonological loop?

The phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process


What is the phonological store?

It holds info for a few seconds; passive speech perception


What is the articulatory rehearsal process?

Rehearsal keeps items in phonological store from decaying. 


What is the visuospatial sketchpad?

It holds spatial and visual information.

The visual cache stores visual form and color information

The inner scribe prcoesses spatial and movement information


What is the episodic buffer?

It is a backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components. It holds information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad. 


What does the central executive do?

Focuses, divides, and switches attention

Controls suppression of irrelevant information


List some executive functions?

Attention, planning, rule governed bx, cognitive flexibility, switching, updating


What is the Simon effect

The size of the reaction time difference between conditions (congruent and incongruent)


What did Bialystok et al. 2004 conclude about bilingualism?

Controlled processing is more efficient in bilinguals

Bilingualism may help to counteract loss of executive control in old age