What is memory?
Processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present
What are the three structural features of the mulit-store model for memory?
Sensory memory: holds all incoming info for miliseconds; modality specific
Short term memory: 5-7 items for 15-30 sec
Long term memory: large amount of info for a long time
What is iconic memory?
A type of brief sensory memory that stores visual icons
What is echoic memory?
A type of brief sensory memory. Remembers persistence of sound
What is working memory?
A limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning
How does working memory differ from short term memory?
Short term memory is a single component, whereas working memory consists of multiple components
Short term memory only holds info for a brief period. Working memory manipulates infor that occurs duing complex cognition
What is the phonological loop?
Holds speech-based information. Places importance on verbal rehearsal
What is the phonological similarity effect and the word-length effect?
The phonological similarity effect is when letters or words that sound similar get confused
The word length effect is when the memory span lowers for words that take a long time to say
What are the 2 components of the phonological loop?
The phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process
What is the phonological store?
It holds info for a few seconds; passive speech perception
What is the articulatory rehearsal process?
Rehearsal keeps items in phonological store from decaying.
What is the visuospatial sketchpad?
It holds spatial and visual information.
The visual cache stores visual form and color information
The inner scribe prcoesses spatial and movement information
What is the episodic buffer?
It is a backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components. It holds information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad.
What does the central executive do?
Focuses, divides, and switches attention
Controls suppression of irrelevant information
List some executive functions?
Attention, planning, rule governed bx, cognitive flexibility, switching, updating
What is the Simon effect
The size of the reaction time difference between conditions (congruent and incongruent)
What did Bialystok et al. 2004 conclude about bilingualism?
Controlled processing is more efficient in bilinguals
Bilingualism may help to counteract loss of executive control in old age