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Flashcards in Language Change Deck (32):
1

What was the original language spoken in Britain

Celtic

2

What happened to old English in the 5th and 6th century

Anglos and saxtons brought their language and pushed out Celtic words

3

What happened to the English language in the 8th century

Scandinavian vikings invaded, joining their language with Anglo saxtons, causing a heavy Germanic influence o

4

What are lexical examples of old English

Place names ending in by e.g. Whitby
Active verbs
Nouns around animals and people

5

What started the Middle English

Normal conquest in 1066

6

What influence did the Norman conquest have on English

Long period of French rule - French became prestigious language of writing and legal documents

7

What influenced Early Modern English

Latin influence due to the renaissance

8

What was the main phonological change

The great vowel shift
- vowels shortened and some became dipthongs
Writing didn't change causing confusion

9

Blending

Combination of words e.g. Moped

10

Compounding

Combined words

11

Acronyms

E.g. Aids

12

Borrowings

Words come from other languages

13

Initialism

MP3

14

Coinage

New words

15

What did jean aichison believe

Language has never been perfect (crumbling castle)
Speaking quickly isn't lazy (damp spoon)
the spread of language is positive (infectious disease)

16

What did job humphreys do

Abbreviations are meant to save time, it it forces people to spend ages translating

17

What did David crystal believe

Language is like a tide - new words are brought in, old ones are taken out

18

What is broadening

A word applies to more context

19

What is weakening

Reduction of the force of the meaning of a word

20

What is narrowing

Reduction in context of a word

21

What is amelioration

Word becomes more positive

22

What is peroration

Word becomes more negative

23

What did crispin Thurlow do and find

544 messages of older teenagers
82% used abbreviations, but they only took up 20% of messages
509 typographic symbols

24

How did youth culture influence language

Slang spreading through social media
Immigration - MLE

25

What is political correctness

Prescriptivist view of not causing offence
Using euphemisms rather than dyphemisms

26

What is chens S curve model

Language change can initially occur at a slow pace, then increases speed as it becomes more common and accepted in the language
This can then slow down once it is widely used

27

Describe aitchisons potential and diffusion model

Potential - there is an internal weakness for a particulAr language
Diffusion - the change starts to spread though the population

28

What is baileys wave model

Geographical distance could have an effect on language change
Someone closer to the centre of a language change is more likely to adopt it

29

What is the theory of lexical gaps

There is a logical reason to create words to 'fill gaps'

30

What is the functional theory

Language always changes and adapts to the needs of its users. Changes in techno,off and industry often fuel the need for new words

31

What if reflectionism in language

A persons language reflects their way of thinking

32

What is determinism in language

If people can be persuaded not to use such derogatory terms can determine a new way of thinking